#TheMountZionArchaeologicalProject; #IsraelNatureandParksAuthority; #ClearEvidenceOfBabylonianConquestOfTheCityFrom 587/586 BCE
North Carolina (U.S.), Aug 13 (Canadian-Media): Researchers digging at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte's ongoing archaeological excavation on Mount Zion in Jerusalem have announced a second significant discovery from the 2019 season—clear evidence of the Babylonian conquest of the city from 587/586 BCE, ScienceXNewsletter reports said.
Earring or tassle ornament made of gold and silver from the destruction layer of 587/586 BCE. Credit: Mt Zion Archaeological Expedition/Rafi Lewis
The discovery is of a deposit including layers of ash, arrowheads dating from the period, as well as Iron Age potsherds, lamps and a significant piece of period jewelry—a gold and silver tassel or earring. There are also signs of a significant Iron Age structure in the associated area, but the building, beneath layers from later periods, has yet to be excavated.
The Mount Zion Archaeological Project, co-directed by UNC Charlotte professor of history Shimon Gibson, Rafi Lewis, a senior lecturer at Ashkelon Academic College and a fellow of Haifa University, and James Tabor, UNC Charlotte professor of religious studies, has been in operation for over a decade and has made numerous significant finds relating to the ancient city's many historical periods, including the announcement made in July, 2019 on evidence concerning the sack of the city during the First Crusade. The current find is one of the oldest and perhaps the most prominent in its historical significance, as the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem is a major moment in Jewish history.
The team believes that the newly-found deposit can be dated to the specific event of the conquest because of the unique mix of artifacts and materials found—pottery and lamps, side-by-side with evidence of the Babylonian siege represented by burnt wood and ashes, and a number of Scythian-type bronze and iron arrowheads which are typical of that period.
Because of the site's location, various alternative explanations for the artifacts can be eliminated, the researchers argue. "We know where the ancient fortification line ran," noted Gibson, "so we know we are within the city. We know that this is not some dumping area, but the south-western neighborhood of the Iron Age city—during the 8th century BCE the urban area extended from the "City of David" area to the south-east and as far as the Western Hill where we are digging."
The ash deposits, similarly, are not conclusive evidence of the Babylonian attack in themselves, but are much more so in the context of other materials.
"For archaeologists, an ashen layer can mean a number of different things," Gibson said. "It could be ashy deposits removed from ovens; or it could be localized burning of garbage. However, in this case, the combination of an ashy layer full of artifacts, mixed with arrowheads, and a very special ornament indicates some kind of devastation and destruction. Nobody abandons golden jewelry and nobody has arrowheads in their domestic refuse."
"The arrowheads are known as 'Scythian arrowheads' and have been found at other archaeological conflict sites from the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. They are known at sites outside of Israel as well. They were fairly commonplace in this period and are known to be used by the Babylonian warriors. Together, this evidence points to the historical conquest of the city by Babylon because the only major destruction we have in Jerusalem for this period is the conquest of 587/586 BCE," he said.
The clay artifacts also help date the discovery. The lamps, Gibson notes, are the typical high-based pinched lamps of the period.
"It's the kind of jumble that you would expect to find in a ruined household following a raid or battle," Gibson said. "Household objects, lamps, broken bits from pottery which had been overturned and shattered... and arrowheads and a piece of jewelry which might have been lost and buried in the destruction."
"Frankly, jewelry is a rare find at conflict sites, because this is exactly the sort of thing that attackers will loot and later melt down."
"I like to think that we are excavating inside one of the 'Great Man's houses' mentioned in the second book of Kings 25:9," Gibson speculated. "This spot would have been at an ideal location, situated as it is close to the western summit of the city with a good view overlooking Solomon's Temple and Mount Moriah to the north-east. We have high expectations of finding much more of the Iron Age city in future seasons of work. "
The building that is apparently part of the layer remains unexcavated. "One might ask why haven't we excavated the whole building?" Gibson said. "The reason is that we are slowly taking the site down, level by level, period by period, and at the end of this last digging season two meters of domestic structures from later Byzantine and Roman periods have still to be dug above the Iron Age level below. We plan to get down to it in the 2020 season."
The unexpected and rare piece of jewelry found is apparently a tassel or earring, with a bell-shaped gold upper part. Clasped beneath is a silver part made in the shape of a cluster of grapes. Gibson noted that this discovery of jewelry "is a unique find and it is a clear indication of the wealth of the inhabitants of the city at the time of the siege." The only other discovery of jewelry in Jerusalem from this period was made many years ago in 1979 in an Iron Age tomb at Ketef Hinnom outside the city.
The researchers say that finding evidence of a critical historical event is what makes the discovery particularly exciting. Lewis, another co-director of the project, explained that "It is very exciting to be able to excavate the material signature of any given historical event, and even more so regarding an important historical event such as the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem."
By all accounts the Babylonian conquest of the city by the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar was ferocious and resulted in a great loss of life, with the razing of the city and the burning of houses, and the plundering and dismantling of King Solomon's Temple to God. The local ruler of the Kingdom of Judah, King Zedekiah, made an attempt to flee the city with his retinue, but was eventually caught and taken captive to Babylon.
One of the Scythian type arrowheads found in the destruction layer from 587/586 BCE. Credit: Mt Zion Archaeological Expedition/Virginia Withers
The Hebrew Bible relates the famine and suffering that the inhabitants of Jerusalem suffered during the lengthy Babylonian siege of the city: "So the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. On the ninth day of the [fourth] month the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. Then a breach was made in the city, and all the men of war [fled] by night by the way of the gate between the two walls.... And he [Nebuzaradan, the Babylonian captain of the guard] burnt the house of the Lord, and the King's house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, even every great man's house, burnt he with fire." (2 Kings 25: 1-9).
The Babylonian siege of Jerusalem lasted for quite a while even though many of the inhabitants wanted to give up. "King Zedekiah simply was not willing to pay tribute to Nebuchadnezzar and the direct result of this was the destruction of the city and the Temple", said Gibson.
Every year religious Jews in Jerusalem and across the world pray and fast in remembrance of the destruction of the Jewish Temple to God in Jerusalem, first by the Babylonians in 587/586 BCE, resulting in the exile of the inhabitants of the city to Babylon, and yet again in 70 CE at the hands of the Roman legions led by Titus. To remember the devastating destruction of the Temple, Jews gather in synagogues around the world and at the Western Wall plaza in Jerusalem, to pray and mourn on Tisha B' Av (the ninth day in the Hebrew month of Av) according to the Jewish calendar, which falls this year on August 11th.
The Mount Zion archaeological project is directed by Shimon Gibson and James Tabor from the College of Liberal and Arts Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, in conjunction with Rafi Lewis of Ashkelon Academic College and Haifa University, and with sponsorship from Aron Levy, John Hoffmann, Cherylee and Ron Vanderham, and Patty and David Tyler and others, and facilitated by Sheila Bishop for The Foundation for Biblical Archaeology.
The dig is also staffed by a host of volunteers, including UNC Charlotte students. The project has been a favorite summer activity of for many of UNC Charlotte's Levine Scholars Program, the university's highly selective national program for undergraduate scholars.
"Participating in the Mount Zion dig has been an amazing opportunity for the Levine Scholars," said Diane Zablotsky, director of UNC Charlotte's Levine Scholars Program. "Although they are from different backgrounds and study in different majors, they shared a unique experience that left them with a deep appreciation of archaeology, the history of Jerusalem, and broadened worldview."
The site is within the "Sovev Homot" park administered by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. Other substantial remains of the multi-period ancient city were uncovered during the 2019 season, including vaulted basements from the time of Herod the Great, a Byzantine street which was the south-westerly continuation of the main city street known as the Cardo Maximus, and a sunken defense ditch that ran in front of the fortifications which greeted the Crusader's when they attacked Jerusalem in 1099 and hindered their assault on the city.
The complex architectural sequence of superimposed structures dating back 3000 years or so is being carefully mapped by a team of recorders and draftsmen headed by Steve Patterson. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte has been conducting archaeological excavations in Jerusalem since 2006 and much vital historical and archaeological information has been steadily extracted from the digging operations.
New York, July 15 (Canadian-Media): A 210,000-year-old skull has been identified as the earliest modern human remains found outside Africa, putting the clock back on mankind's arrival in Europe by more than 150,000 years, researchers said last week, Science X Newsletter reports said.
The Apidima 2 cranium (right) and its reconstruction (left). Apidima 2 shows a suite of features characteristic of Neanderthals, indicating that it belongs to the Neanderthal lineage. Credit: Copyright Katerina Harvati, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen.
In a startling discovery that changes our understanding of how modern man populated Eurasia, the findings support the idea that Homo sapiens made several, sometimes unsuccessful migrations from Africa over tens of thousands of years.
Southeast Europe has long been considered a major transport corridor for modern humans from Africa. But until now the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens on the continent dated back only around 50,000 years.
There has however been a number of discoveries indicating the ancient presence of Neanderthals—an early human cousin—across the continent.
Two fossilised but badly damaged skulls unearthed in a Greek cave in the 1970s were identified as Neanderthal at the time.
In findings presented in the journal Nature, an international team of researchers used state-of-the art computer modelling and uranium dating to re-examine the two skulls.
One of them, named Apidima 2 after the cave in which the pair were found, proved to be 170,000 years old and did indeed belong to a Neanderthal.
But, to the shock of scientists, the skull named Apidima 1 pre-dated Apidima 2 by as much as 40,000 years, and was determined to be that of a Homo sapiens.
That makes the skull by far the oldest modern human remains ever discovered on the continent, and older than any known Homo sapiens specimen outside of Africa.
"It shows that the early dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa not only occurred earlier, before 200,000 years ago, but also reached further geographically, all the way to Europe," Katerina Harvati, a palaeoanthropologist at the Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Germany, told AFP.
The Apidima 1 partial cranium (right) and its reconstruction from posterior view (middle) and side view (left). The rounded shape of the Apidima 1 cranium a unique feature of modern humans and contrasts sharply with Neanderthals and their ancestors. Credit: Copyright Katerina Harvati, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen.
"This is something that we did not suspect before, and which has implications for the population movements of these ancient groups."
Apidima 1 lacked classic features associated with Neanderthal skulls, including the distinctive bulge at the back of the head, shaped like hair tied in a bun.
Hominins—a subset of great apes that includes Homo sapiens and Neanderthals—are believed to have emerged in Africa more than six million years ago. They left the continent in several migration waves starting about two million years ago.
The oldest known African fossil attributed to a member of the Homo family is a 2.8 million-year-old jawbone from Ethiopia.
Homo sapiens replaced Neanderthals across Europe for good around 45,000-35,000 years ago, in what was long considered a gradual takeover of the continent involving millenia of co-existence and even interbreeding.
But the skull discovery in Greece suggests that Homo sapiens undertook the migration from Africa to southern Europe on "more than one occasion", according to Eric Delson, a professor of anthropology at City University of New York.
"Rather than a single exit of hominins from Africa to populate Eurasia, there must have been several dispersals, some of which did not result in permanent occupations," said Delson, who was not involved in the Nature study.
Harvati said advances in dating and genetics technology could continue to shape our understanding of how our pre-historic ancestors spread throughout the world.
"I think recent advances in palaeoanthropology have shown that the field is still full of surprises," she said.
#iWINC; #Imagebuilderz; #Gulzarish; #AgaKhanMuseum; #PadmaBhushan; #theSahityaAkademiAward; #theDadasahebPhalkeAward; #PrashantSarnaik, SheetalKulkarni
Toronto, May 7 (Canadian-Media): An announcement was made by Indian Women in Canada (iWINC), in partnership with Imagebuilderz on May 4 at the Mantra restaurant, Toronto regarding the presentation of Gulzarish, one of the classiest shows, at the Aga Khan Museum, Toronto on May 31, 2019, media reports said.
Gulzarish, an artistic display of soulful poetry and captivating music of renowned lyricist and film director Gulzar uniquely combines music and dance along with superb narration.
“We all know Gulzar – well known Indian poet, lyricist, and film director, who began his career in the sixties with the film Bandini,” said iWINC founding members at Mantra restaurant on May 4, 2019 at the prestigious Mantra restaurant in Toronto.
“Over the years, Gulzar Sahab has done films like Aandhi, Mausam and Mirza Ghalib and has won many awards including the Padma Bhushan, the Sahitya Akademi Award and the highest award in Indian cinema, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award.”
“Gulzarish is the first dream project conceptualized by taking Gulzar Sahab’s fans through a mesmerizing journey of his poetry and film career by music and narration by all local artists. We have a mandate to create a platform for local artists, pursue personal passion for music and fundraise for underprivileged children and women, ”
said Prashant Sarnaik, founder of P.S., the Karaoke Klub and the mastermind behind Gulzarish, along with his art director Sheetal Kulkarni, providing a glimpse into the show by singing a few lines from Gulzar’s popular music including Dil to Bachcha hai ji and lakdi ki kathi, etc.
“IWINC is proud to bring this first production to Canadians,” say organizers. “The show is presented very artistically, conveying Gulzar’s many moods and his uniquely distinctive style that continues to entertain and enthrall audiences across many generations.”
Founded by the collective vision of six ingenuous women – Mini Khurana, Ravinder Malhi, Smita Dayal, Taran Chandok, Ranju Bansal and Manpreet Dhillon - from the Greater Toronto Area, iWINC has a mandate to bring together the strength, energy and resources of women in the community and to enrich lives and society.
Imagebuilderz - Your Communications and Image Enhancement Partner
Tel: 416-708-2537 / Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
#Archaeology; #China; #paintings
Lanzhou, May 3 (Canadian-Media/Xinhua): Archaeologists have discovered 16 rock paintings carved with vivid animal figures in northwest China's Gansu Province, including paintings of deer, an important indicator of the area's changing ecosystem, media reports said.
The 16 rock paintings depicting deer, cattle and human hunting were found on Yumu Mountain of the Qilian Mountain Areas at the elevation of 2,760 meters, according to the cultural relics bureau of Sunan County.
The paintings date back 3,500 years ago, according to initial appraisals by researchers.
Five paintings stood out by featuring deer. The largest deer figure, 16 cm long and 8 cm high, stood with its four legs slightly bending. Another little deer was in the running posture.
Researchers said as deers are sensitive to climate and environment changes, the rock paintings can provide clues to the ancient environment of the Qilian Mountain and living conditions of local hunters.
Nearly 5,000 rock paintings at over 80 spots have been discovered on Yumu Mountain, most of which feature well-preserved animal figures.
#Toronto, #Canada; # immigrantsettlementandintegration; #Vancouver, #Montreal; #Amsterdam #GraemeStewart
Toronto, May 30 (Canadian-Media): The problem of empty space in Canada due to decades-old suburban apartment districts have become sites of immigrant settlement and integration during the last decade, media reports said.
The suburban private-rental apartment district is Canada’s unique contribution to housing.
There are 2,000 such concrete towers in the Greater Toronto Area alone, most of them marked by empty voids and sprawling parking lots separating buildings from one another and from the wider world and its economy.
Canadian cities seem to lag at least a decade behind many of their European counterparts in recognizing the social, economic and ecological problems posed by empty spaces.
Some suburban cities, notably Surrey, B.C., and Mississauga have confronted this problem as part of their efforts to build more dense “downtown” districts.
And the construction of new rapid-transit lines in Vancouver, Montreal and the northern and western suburbs of Toronto has enabled higher-density development along those lines.
Canada’s most ambitious confrontation with empty spaces is the set of incentives Toronto has developed to encourage the owners of those slab apartment buildings to turn the parking lots and empty lawns between the buildings into hives of commerce, learning, community activity and, potentially, more housing.
Among those incentives is the city’s “Residential Apartment Commercial” (RAC) zoning category, which became law in 2016, and allows building owners to create restaurants, shopping and eating districts, galleries, child-care centres and other services in the spaces beneath their buildings without applying for approval.
Graeme Stewart, the architect (with ERA Architects) who developed and promoted these “Tower Neighbourhood Renewal” policies, says that these incentives have been slow to be taken up by owners.
“What we’ve found is that while there’s huge opportunity in all the open space around these buildings, there isn’t clarity on what’s the best way to do it. A lot of this housing belongs to existing neighbourhoods, so bringing change in is political and complicated.”
But a set of new developments this year, including more than $6-billion in funding for building rehabilitation (including in private-rental buildings) in the federal government’s housing strategy, may kick-start a spurt of construction in the valleys between towers.
Canadian cities are beginning to learn the lesson of Mexico City – that it’s the small things that count in transforming the dead zones. “The challenge is going from these micro-interventions – which are beginning to happen – to bring in macro-investments, like new housing, like mass transit,” Mr. Stewart says. “I think we’re at the beginning of a larger conversation about how we open up these spaces.”
But Canada also needs to learn the lesson of Amsterdam – that the empty spaces can house many more people and allow greener, more enjoyable lives, if we think big.
(Reporting by Asha Bajaj)
#STOMPwinners, #CityofToronto, ParksForestryandRecreation
Ottawa, May 7 (Caadian-Media): 17th annual STOMP -- one of Youth Week's highlight events -- urban dance competition and showcase was held yesterday in which more than 330 young performers competed at the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts, which had drawn an audience of approximately 3,000 people, media reports said.
STOMP fostering an environment of youth safety, celebration and youth encouragement is one of many youth initiatives developed by Parks, Forestry and Recreation, reportedly the keepers of our common grounds, the urban forest, the parks and public spaces that enliven us and the recreation spaces where children, adults and seniors get active and build life-long connections.
Toronto Parks, Forestry and Recreation/Facebook page
Participants of the event were youth performers ages six to 24 from Parks, Forestry and Recreation dance programs and other youth-serving agencies.
The events showcased various urban dance styles such as step, break, hip hop, dancehall, bollywood, jazz and contemporary, as well as Toronto's up-and-coming youth bands, vocalists, rappers and dub poets.
The judgement was based on the dancers' choreography, music, costume, creativity, originality, synchronization, use of the stage, rhythm, interaction with the audience and musicality.
The winning teams are as follows:
Novice: First place: Dream Tribe; Second: Baby All Stars; Third: Arch Angel Dance Academy (solo)
Beginner: First place: The Unknowns; Second: Black Creek Condors; Third: JJM Bollywood Fusion
Intermediate: First place: Arch Angels Dance Academy (duet); Second: AOS Dance Team; Third: SUI2
Advanced: First place: Elite Dance Crew; Second: Halo Halo; Third: 6ix Boss Social media fan favourite: Dixon Hall Dance Crew
#CarletonUniversity, #Ottawa, #Ontario, #Americanarchitecture, #environmentally-friendly, #JustinYan, #carbonneutrality,
Ottawa, Apr 29 (Canadian-Media): A Carleton University student, Justin Yan, the only Canadian among the ten winners, had received a prestigious award from the American Institute of Architects Committee on the Environmentfor his environmentally-friendly transformation of an Ottawa building from the early 1900s, media reports said.
The award recognizes projects that took steps toward carbon neutrality and featured solutions to environmental issues.
"I couldn't believe it," Yan told CBC Radio's All in a Day last week.
"I had to read [the email from the institute] like three, four times."
Justin Yan/Facebook page
Yan's project consisted of redesigning a 110-year-old space on Somerset Street West, near Ottawa's City Centre building.
Being close to the city's lumber yards, the space was initially used as a factory to produce stairs.
When it closed down, the space was used as storage "for a long time," Yan told 'All in a Day'.
It was damaged by fire in the 1940s, but due to the Yan's transformative project, it now reportedly houses an antique store.
As part of his submission, Yan, then a first-year master's student, transformed the space into a workshop for manufacturing architectural glass.
Yan had proposed the addition of a new basement level to the building to store the high-powered glass melting furnaces.
The heat from those furnaces, said Yan would help serve to keep the entire building warm.
"A big part of the movement toward sustainable design is looking into creative ways of recovering heat and reusing water within a building [through the use of] new innovative systems," he said.
Justin Yan's proposed interior workshop space.
One of the 30 North American architecture firms who sponsored the competition had reportedly promised a paid summer internship grant to Yan and the other winners $2,000 US and a trip to New York to showcase their designs.
All of those firms focus on sustainable design and added,
"They're very interested in working with us, the new generation, to get us thinking about all this stuff," Yan said.
April 27, 2018
Toronto City Council approves master plan for public art in Scarborough Centre – first of its kind for Toronto
Toronto City Council has approved the Scarborough Centre Public Art Master Plan. The master plan will serve as an important and proactive guide in prioritizing public art sites (both publicly and privately owned) that offer the most potential and the greatest impact for public art opportunities in Scarborough Centre.
"This master plan recognizes the regional importance of Scarborough Centre and incorporates the aspirations of the local community," said Mayor John Tory. "With the anticipated growth coming to this area of the city as we expand transit, we have a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to create a vision for the highest quality urban community and public art is a huge part of that vision."
The Scarborough Centre Public Art Master Plan is a tool to be used by city planners to assist in the identification of opportunities that engage with the private sector. The implementation of these opportunities will be secured through the planning process, following the Percent for Public Art Guidelines.
Toronto's City Planning division has secured several public art master plans in the past – produced by the private sector – as part of the development approval process.
"The Scarborough Centre Public Art Master Plan is the first City-led public art master plan for the City of Toronto," said Gregg Lintern, Toronto's Chief Planner. "It is my goal that we use this Scarborough model as an example and that we develop more of these master plans to address public art strategically in other areas of the city."
In 2012, City Council endorsed the Scarborough Centre Public Space and Streetscape Master Plan, a vision for the area known as Scarborough Centre (the area bounded by the 401, Markham Road, Ellesmere Road and Midland Avenue). That plan identified the need for a Scarborough Centre Public Art Plan that would inform the selection method, quality and location of new public art.
In 2016, the City Planning division engaged consultants and began the work to produce this public art master plan. City Planning worked with the Economic Development and Culture division and the local community to oversee its completion.
"The master plan identifies several priority sites, and ensures that public art will be an integral component of public spaces, facilities, transit areas, and open spaces, contributing to the future success of this area," said Mike Williams, General Manager, Economic Development and Culture.
With its approval today, City Council approves the Scarborough Centre Public Art Master Plan for circulation to all City divisions, Boards, Agencies and Commissions to be used to enhance public space with high quality art.
The master plan outlines various budget ranges, commissioning strategies and an implementation, maintenance and conservation strategy. As noted in the document, this public art master plan should be reviewed every five years for updates that reflect policy changes and take advantage of all new opportunities.
Toronto, Nov 24 (Canadian-Media): Here is a compilation of some very old photos and paintings of Jagannatha Puri, in Orissa. Many of these photos were taken by William Henry Cornish around 1880 to 1890, media reports said.
Close view of the lion gate and aruna-stambha of the Jagannatha Temple taken by William Henry Cornish around 1892.
Photograph of the lion’s gate (singha dwara) of the Jagannatha temple at Puri taken by William Henry Cornish around 1868.
View from the east towards the Jagannatha Temple with the bazaar in the foreground, taken by William Henry Cornish in 1892.
Grand Road in front of Jagannatha Temple taken in 1928.
Gajapati Maharaja Dibyasingha Dev during the cherapahanra, on the Nandigosh chariot taken by Asutosh Sinha in 1971.
Construction of the Ratha chariots of Lord Jagannatha taken by Asutosh Sinha in 1960.
Gajapati Maharaja Dibyasingha Dev during the cherapahanra, on the Nandigosh chariot taken by Asutosh Sinha in 1971.
The return journey of Jagannatha Mahaprabhu from the chariot to the temple taken by Asutosh Sinah in 1968.
Close view of the inner gateway of the Jagannatha Temple taken by Poorno Chander Mukherji in the 1890’s.
Northern entrance of the Jagannatha Temple at Puri taken by Poorno Chander Mukherji in 1890.
Southern facade of the Jagannatha Temple at Puri taken by William Cornish in 1892.
Minor temples at the south side of the Jagannatha Temple complex at Puri taken by Poorno Chander Mukherji in 1890.
General view from the south-east of the Jagannatha Temple at Puri taken by William Henry Cornish in 1892.
Entrance to the Jagannatha Temple (lion gateway – singhadwara) of the Jagannatha Temple at Puri taken by Henry Dixon in the early 1860s.
Photograph of the dola-mandapa in the Jagannatha Temple complex at Puri taken by Poorno Chander Mukherji in 1890.
Photograph of sculptural panels in the Jagannatha Temple at Puri taken by Poorno Chander Mukherji in the 1890s.
Photograph of Jagannatha temple in Puri taken in 1938.
Photographs courtesy of: IndiaDivine.org