#RotationOfCrops; #PlantPests; #SwitchingOfEnvironment
Germany, Jan 16 (Canadian-Media): A new computational model presented by Maria Bargués-Ribera and Chaitanya Gokhale of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Germany in PLOS Computational Biology shows how different patterns of crop rotation—planting different crops at different times in the same field—can impact long-term yield when plant pathogens threaten the crops, media reports said.
Crops being managed in crop rotation. Credit: USDA NRCS Texas
The threat posed to agriculture worldwide by the continual evolution of plant pathogens can be minimized by crop rotation which improves pest control and soil quality. Yet another solution, pointed by other research is switching the environment in which a pathogen grows to limit its reproduction and change its evolution. However, these two concepts have been rarely studied together from an evolutionary point of view.
A computational model of the technique integrating evolutionary theory was developed by Bargués-Ribera and Gokhale to investigate a scenario in which cash crops (grown for profit) and cover crops (grown to benefit soil) are alternated, but are affected by a pathogen that only attacks the cash crops and this leads to a better understanding of how crop rotation can protect against pests.
It was also identified by this analysis that the patterns of crop rotation which maximize crop yield over multiple decades under the given scenario showed that regular rotations every other year may not be beneficial. The suggestions of the findings are that the long-term outcome of crop rotation depends on its ability to both maintain soil quality and diminish pathogen load during harvesting seasons.
"Our model is an example of how evolutionary theory can complement farmers' knowledge," Bargués-Ribera says. "In a world with ever increasing food demand, ecological and evolutionary principles can be leveraged to design strategies making agriculture efficient and sustainable."
The new model could be applied in the future research to specific species to assess crop rotation patterns for specific crops and their pests. The model could also be used to help study the combined effects of crop rotation with other pest control techniques, such as fungicides and use of crops that have been genetically modified for pest resistance.
#YaleUniversityResearchers; #MassExtinctionOfDinosaurs; #Asteriod; #VolcanicEruptions
Yale University (United States), Jan 16 (Canadian-Media): The mass extinction event that killed the dinosaurs was the result slamming of an asteroid into the earth, and not volcanic activity, according to an international, Yale-led team of researchers, media reports said.
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Yale assistant professor of geology & geophysics Pincelli Hull and her colleagues argue in a new research paper in Science that environmental impacts from massive volcanic eruptions in India in the region known as the Deccan Traps happened well before the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago and therefore did not contribute to the mass extinction.
The fact that mass extinction event, also known as K-Pg, occurred after an asteroid slammed into Earth had been acknowledged by many scientists and that volcanic activity happened around the same time.
"Volcanoes can drive mass extinctions because they release lots of gases, like SO2 and CO2, that can alter the climate and acidify the world," said Hull, lead author of the new study. "But recent work has focused on the timing of lava eruption rather than gas release."
In order to find out the exact timing of volcanic gas emission, Hull and her colleagues compared global temperature change and the carbon isotopes (an isotope is an atom with a higher or lower number of neutrons than normal) from marine fossils with models of the climatic effect of CO2 release.
It was concluded by these researchers that most of the gas release happened well before the asteroid impact—and that the asteroid was the sole cause of extinction.
"Volcanic activity in the late Cretaceous caused a gradual global warming event of about two degrees, but not mass extinction," said former Yale researcher Michael Henehan, who compiled the temperature records for the study. "A number of species moved toward the North and South poles but moved back well before the asteroid impact."
Added Hull, "A lot of people have speculated that volcanoes mattered to K-Pg, and we're saying, 'No, they didn't.'"
Recent work on the Deccan Traps, in India, has also pointed to massive eruptions in the immediate aftermath of the K-Pg mass extinction. These results have puzzled scientists because there is no warming event to match. The new study suggests an answer to this puzzle, as well.
"The K-Pg extinction was a mass extinction and this profoundly altered the global carbon cycle," said Yale postdoctoral associate Donald Penman, the study's modeler. "Our results show that these changes would allow the ocean to absorb an enormous amount of CO2 on long time scales—perhaps hiding the warming effects of volcanism in the aftermath of the event."
#NASA, #NOAA; #2019AnnualAssessmentOfGlobalTemperatures
Washington, Jan 10 (Canadian-Media): Climate experts from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will release their annual assessment of global temperatures and discuss the major climate trends of 2019 during a media teleconference at 12:15 p.m. EST Wednesday, Jan. 15, NASA reports said.
NASA and NOAA are two keepers of the world's temperature data and independently produce a record of Earth's surface temperatures and changes. Shown here are 2018 global temperature data: higher than average (1951-1980) temperatures are shown in red, lower than normal temperatures are in blue. Credits: NASA Earth Observatory
The briefing will take place at the 100th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting in Boston.
The teleconference participants are:
Media can participate in the teleconference by calling 800-369-2090 (toll-free in the United States and Canada) or 1-203-827-7030 (international) and use the passcode CLIMATE. Audio of the briefing with supporting graphics will stream live at:
The supporting graphics will also be available at:
NASA and NOAA are two keepers of the world's temperature data and independently produce a record of Earth's surface temperatures and changes based on historical observations over oceans and land.
For more information about NASA's Earth science programs, visit:
#PlantLifeExpandingInHimalayanRegion; #DeclineOfTemperatureLimitedAreas; #MountEverest; #HimalayanEcosystems; #GoogleEarthEngine
Cornwall (England), Jan 10 (Canadian-Media): Plant life is expanding in the area around Mount Everest, and across the Himalayan region, new research shows, phys.org/news reports said.
View towards Khumbu and Cholatse from below Ama Dablam at about 4,900 m showing typical subnival vegetation in the foreground. Credit: Karen Anderson
Scientists used satellite data to measure the extent of subnival vegetation--plants growing between the treeline and snowline—in this vast area.
Little is known about these remote, hard-to-reach ecosystems, made up of short-stature plants (predominantly grasses and shrubs) and seasonal snow, but the study reveals they cover between 5 and 15 times the area of permanent glaciers and snow.
Using data from 1993 to 2018 from NASA's Landsat satellites, University of Exeter researchers measured small but significant increases in subnival vegetation cover across four height brackets from 4,150-6,000 metres above sea level.
Results varied at different heights and locations, with the strongest trend in increased vegetation cover in the bracket 5,000-5,500m.
Around Mount Everest, the team found a significant increase in vegetation in all four height brackets. Conditions at the top of this height range have generally been considered to be close to the limit of where plants can grow.
Though the study doesn't examine the causes of the change, the findings are consistent with modelling that shows a decline in "temperature-limited areas" (where temperatures are too low for plants to grow) across the Himalayan region due to global warming.
View towards Nuptse-Lhotse Ridge from below Ama Dablam at about 4,900 m showing typical subnival vegetation. Credit: Karen Anderson
Other research has suggested Himalayan ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate-induced vegetation shifts.
"A lot of research has been done on ice melting in the Himalayan region, including a study that showed how the rate of ice loss doubled between 2000 and 2016," said Dr. Karen Anderson, of the Environment and Sustainability Institute on Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall.
"It's important to monitor and understand ice loss in major mountain systems, but subnival ecosystems cover a much larger area than permanent snow and ice and we know very little about them and how they moderate water supply.
"Snow falls and melts here seasonally, and we don't know what impact changing subnival vegetation will have on this aspect of the water cycle—which is vital because this region (known as 'Asia's water towers') feeds the ten largest rivers in Asia."
Dr. Anderson said "some really detailed fieldwork" and further validation of these findings is now required to understand how plants in this high-altitude zone interact with soil and snow.
Scrubby vegetation near the Nepalese village of Dingboche about 4,400 m above sea level. Credit: Karen Anderson
Dominic Fawcett, who coded the image processing, said: "These large-scale studies using decades of satellite data are computationally intensive because the file sizes are huge. We can now do this relatively easily on the cloud by using Google Earth Engine, a new and powerful tool freely available to anyone, anywhere."
The Hindu Kush Himalayan region extends across all or part of eight countries, from Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the east. More than 1.4 billion people depend on water from catchments emanating here.
The paper, published in the journal Global Change Biology, is entitled: "Vegetation expansion in the subnival Hindu Kush Himalaya."
A new study published by biologists at LMU demonstrates that there are no simple or universal solutions to the problem of engineering plants to enable them to cope with the challenges posed by climate change, phys.org/news reports said.
Adapting crops such as tobacco to climate change is more complex than expected. Credit: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
For plants, climate change promises one thing for sure—increased levels of stress. After all, plants put down roots. They don't have the option of moving to where the weather suits them. Wider fluctuations in temperatures and increasing levels of aridity in many regions around the world are already making their lives more difficult. Plants are highly complex and sensitive systems. Even in zones with stable climates today, variations in light levels can reduce growth rates and crop yields. For example, plants have developed sophisticated cellular mechanisms that protect them against the deleterious effects of high light intensities on photosynthesis. In one such photoprotective process, the excess light energy is dissipated as heat before it can damage the photosynthetic apparatus. This depresses yields but it is very much in the plant's interest.
Three enzymes play a key role in this adaptation process, which are referred to as V, P and Z for short. In a paper published in 2016, which drew a great deal of attention, an American research group overexpressed the genes for these three proteins in tobacco plants, thus increasing the amounts of the enzymes produced in the leaves. They subsequently observed, under field conditions, that these "VPZ' lines grew faster rates than did control plants with normal levels of the enzymes. LMU biologists Antoni Garcia-Molina and Dario Leister have now performed essentially the same experiment in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress). Their findings appear in the journal Nature Plants.
Their results confirm that, as in the case of tobacco, higher levels of V, P and Z reduce rates of photosynthesis while enabling the plants to adapt more rapidly (in fact, even faster than tobacco) to fluctuating light levels. Crucially however, the Arabidopsis VPZ lines did not grow faster than control plants. On the contrary, overexpression of the three enzymes resulted in retarded growth. "This clearly shows that it's not quite as easy to produce plants that are better adapted as some research groups have confidently suggested," Leister remarks. "In fact, higher levels of photoprotection may actually interfere with the operation of other mechanisms that are important for plant growth."
For Leister, these data essentially demonstrate that targeted adaptation of plants to facilitate successful adjustment to changing climatic conditions is likely to be a very complicated task. They certainly show that one cannot always expect to confer increased resistance to desiccation or optimize yields under fluctuating light levels simply by adjusting the levels of a few proteins. "The physiological processes in plants are tightly interconnected. This makes it impossible to predict the effects of flipping this switch or tightening that screw," he says. This explains why he and his colleagues approach the problem of targeted adaptation from the perspective of systems biology, which takes a "holistic" view, as he calls it. For example, efforts to increase the yield or biomass by increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis must also ensure that the extra energy available is in fact channeled into increased growth. In principle, enhanced photosynthetic performance should result in the capture of more energy and in higher levels of metabolites. But this extra energy and abundance of chemical compounds must be put to some beneficial use. In the absence of any "added value," increased rates of photosynthesis can prove to be detrimental to plants.
The analysis of complex relationships like this is the raison d'ètre of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center TR175, of which Leister is the principal coordinator. The scientists involved in the project seek to understand how plants react to biotic and abiotic environmental factors, such as drought, light levels and temperature, by analyzing their impact on the concentrations of all measurable metabolites, transcripts and proteins in plant cells. With the help of these data, they hope to identify the key components that allow plants to cope with varying conditions. In the case of crop plants that are indispensable for human nutrition, the mechanisms that underlie trade-offs between growth rates, increases in biomass and yields must also be taken into consideration. "In the context of climate change, the idea is to help plants to adapt to the changing conditions by introducing targeted genetic changes that allow them to handle the altered environmental parameters," Leister explains. Researchers refer to this strategy as "assisted evolution." "In order to have a realistic chance of finding sustainable solutions, we must adopt a systematic approach to the active adaptation of plants to the changing environmental conditions," he says. In this respect, some progress has already been made in certain species of algae that have very short generation times, which permits instances of successful adaptation to be rapidly detected. Such systems can then serve as sources of potentially useful genetic mutations that can be introduced into green plants.
#MultipleFactorsOfClimateChange; #Berlin; StudyOfSoil; #Ecology
Berlin, Nov 17 (Canadian-Media): A study of soil and how it was affected by multiple factors of climate change was done by a team of ecologists at Freie Universität Berlin showed that we need to rethink climate change biology with a focus on the multitude of factors and their interactions, phys.org/news reported.
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
The team, led by Prof. Dr. Matthias Rillig, experimentally examined effects increasing number of factors of climate change like increasing temperature, drought, the presence of microplastic, various pesticides, heavy metals, salinity, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and found that and it was difficult to accurately predict effects when many factors were involved.
The study highlights the urgent need to focus on multifactor studies and appears in the current issue of Science.
This means that scientists are currently still quite ignorant of what might actually happen with climate change in reality, with more and more factors acting on ecosystems. For example, in the experiment, soils became water-repellent with many factors applied, something that was not apparent at all from looking at the single-factor results. But one thing was clear multiple factors of climate change there was a decline in soil functions and in biodiversity.
On the other hand, this might also mean every factor that we eliminate or reduce will potentially help soils and ecosystems.
"What has become very clear from our study is that we need to rethink climate change biology with a focus on the multitude of factors and their interactions," says Rillig.
#MysteriousDiseaseKillingAmericanBeeches; #Bark-infestingFungus; #AmericanBeeches
New York, Nov 15 (Canadian-Media): A mysterious disease is starting to kill American beeches, one of eastern North America's most important trees, and has spread rapidly from the Great Lakes to New England, sciencemag.org reports said.
Some researchers believe a nematode native to Asia is causing a deadly disease in American beech trees. Image credit: Sciencemag.org.com
But scientists disagree about what is causing the ailment, dubbed beech leaf disease. Some have recently blamed a tiny leaf-eating worm introduced from Asia, but others are skeptical that's the whole story.
Regardless of their views, researchers say the outbreak deserves attention. "We're dealing with something really unusual," says Lynn Carta, a plant disease specialist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Beltsville, Maryland.
American beech (Fagus grandifolia), whose smooth gray trunks can resemble giant elephant legs, can grow to almost 40 meters tall. It is the fifth most common tree species in southern New England and in New York state—and the single most common tree in Washington, D.C. Its annual nut crop provides food for birds, squirrels, and deer.
Beeches in the United States were already struggling with a bark-infesting fungus when, in 2012, biologist John Pogacnik of Lake Metroparks, which manages natural areas in Ohio's Lake County, spotted trees with leaves that were shriveled and had black stripes. By 2018, foresters had documented beeches with similar symptoms in 24 counties in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and Canada's Ontario province. Small trees with shriveled leaves were starting to die; on larger beeches, the symptoms crept up the tree toward leaves in the canopy. Worried foresters began to pry loose research funding from USDA and other agencies, and organized a meeting to discuss the disease in May 2018 in Parma, Ohio.
There, plant pathologist David McCann, of the Ohio Department of Agriculture in Reynoldsburg, said he had found thousands of wriggling worms streaming from infected beech leaves. He sent Carta samples of the worms, which can be up to 2 millimeters long. Carta identified the worm as a subspecies of Litylenchus crenatae, a nematode that is found in beech trees in Asia but doesn't kill them. The find was eye-opening, Carta says, because no leaf-eating nematode is known to infect a large forest tree in North America.
Next, Carta, together with biologist David Burke of the Holden Arboretum in Kirtland, Ohio, and others, sought to verify Koch's postulates—pathology's gold standard for verifying a putative cause of a disease. The researchers took nematodes from diseased trees, pipetted them onto the buds of young, healthy trees in a greenhouse, then waited for symptoms to appear and reisolated the nematode from the affected leaves. The results of the experiment, which Carta presented at a conference in July and which have been accepted for publication in the journal Forest Pathology, indicate that "nematodes are causing beech leaf disease," Burke says. "We feel like we've closed Koch's postulates."
Enrico Bonello, a plant pathologist at Ohio State University in Columbus, is skeptical. He and a graduate student, Carrie Ewing, have ground up leaves from diseased and healthy looking beeches and then extracted fragments of DNA and RNA. They found nematode DNA in both healthy seeming and diseased trees. In diseased beeches, they also found evidence of three bacteria and three fungi not found in healthy looking trees. They don't know whether any of the microbes sicken trees. But Bonello says the finding, which he plans to present at an upcoming conference, "raises questions" about the role of nematodes. Perhaps, he says, the worms are simply transmitting a microbial pathogen that is the disease's true cause.
Carta's team, however, considers that scenario "highly unlikely." She contends nematode feeding alone could sicken trees.
Whatever its cause, beech leaf disease is getting around. Connecticut officials last month announced detections in Greenwich, Stamford, and New Canaan, on New York City's doorstep. Diseased trees have also been found on Long Island in New York state, some 800 kilometers from the malady's ground zero. Carta and others are investigating whether the nematode is being moved across the landscape by mites found on infected beech trees, or by birds.
USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, the agency responsible for dealing with invasive tree killers, is helping study the disease. But it has held off on taking action to limit the disease until it knows more about the cause and how it spreads.
The beech's plight has dismayed forest experts, who are already reeling from an onslaught of introduced tree killers such as the emerald ash borer beetle that has eliminated millions of trees. "I think we should be alarmed," says Robert Marra, a forest pathologist with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven. "What's going to be left in forests?"
The beech may face additional threats. Earlier this year, U.S. Forest Service researchers announced they had found an undescribed beetle on stressed European beech trees in a New York City cemetery. The scientists are now studying whether the insect also has a taste for American beech.
Washingon, Oct 15 (Canadian-Media): A first-ever global survey of dozens of large, freshwater lakes conducted by Carnegie's Jeff Ho and Anna Michalak and NASA's Nima Pahlevan and published by Nature showed that the intensity of summer algal blooms has increased over the past three decades, Science X Newsletter reports said.
Lake Khanka (left) on the border between Russia and China and Lake St. Clair (right) on the border between the United States and Canada both showed improvement and then deteriorated in Ho, Michalak, and Pahlevan's study of algal blooms in large lakes. Credit: Khanka image made by Norman Kuring, NASA's Ocean Color web, and Lauren Dauphin. St. Clair image courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory made by Joshua Stevens, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey.
Reports of harmful algal blooms—like the ones that shut down Toledo's water supply in 2014 or led to states of emergency being declared in Florida in 2016 and 2018—are growing. These aquatic phenomena are harmful either because of the intensity of their growth, or because they include populations of toxin-producing phytoplankton. But before this research effort, it was unclear whether the problem was truly getting worse on a global scale. Likewise, the degree to which human activity —including agriculture, urban development, and climate change—was contributing to this problem was uncertain.
"Toxic algal blooms affect drinking water supplies, agriculture, fishing, recreation, and tourism," explained lead author Ho. "Studies indicate that just in the United States, freshwater blooms result in the loss of $4 billion each year."
Despite this, studies on freshwater algal blooms have either focused on individual lakes or specific regions, or the period examined was comparatively short. No long-term global studies of freshwater blooms had been undertaken until now.
Ho, Michalak, and Pahlevan's study of algal blooms in lakes over a 30-year period found that Florida's Lake Okeechobee deteriorated. Toxic algal blooms resulted in states of emergency being declared in Florida in 2016 and 2018. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory image made by Joshua Stevens, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey.
Ho, Michalak, and Pahlevan used 30 years of data from NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey's Landsat 5 near-Earth satellite, which monitored the planet's surface between 1984 and 2013 at 30 meter resolution, to reveal long-term trends in summer algal blooms in 71 large lakes in 33 countries on six continents. To do so, they created a partnership with Google Earth Engine to process and analyze more than 72 billion data points.
"We found that the peak intensity of summertime algal blooms increased in more than two-thirds of lakes but decreased in a statistically significant way in only six of the lakes," Michalak explained. "This means that algal blooms really are getting more widespread and more intense, and it's not just that we are paying more attention to them now than we were decades ago."
Although the trend towards more-intense blooms was clear, the reasons for this increase seemed to vary from lake to lake, with no consistent patterns among the lakes where blooms have gotten worse when considering factors such as fertilizer use, rainfall, or temperature. One clear finding, however, is that among the lakes that improved at any point over the 30-year period, only those that experienced the least warming were able to sustain improvements in bloom conditions. This suggests that climate change is likely already hampering lake recovery in some areas.
"This finding illustrates how important it is to identify the factors that make some lakes more susceptible to climate change," Michalak said. "We need to develop water management strategies that better reflect the ways that local hydrological conditions are affected by a changing climate."
Beijing (China), Aug 2 (Canadian-Media): Melting Himalayan glaciers are releasing decades of accumulated pollutants into downstream ecosystems, according to a new study, said Mary Caperton Morton, GeoSpace, Phys.org reports said.
The high mountain glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau feed thousands of alpine lakes that form the headwaters of many of Asia’s major rivers. Credit: NASA, Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center
The new research in AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres finds chemicals used in pesticides that have been accumulating in glaciers and ice sheets around the world since the 1940s are being released as Himalayan glaciers melt as a result of climate change.
These pollutants are winding up in Himalayan lakes, potentially impacting aquatic life and bioaccumulating in fish at levels that may be toxic for human consumption.
The new study shows that even the most remote areas of the planet can be repositories for pollutants and sheds light on how pollutants travel around the globe, according to the study's authors.
The Himalayan glaciers contain even higher levels of atmospheric pollutants than glaciers in other parts of the world "because of their proximity to south Asian countries that are some of the most polluted regions of the world," said Xiaoping Wang, a geochemist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing and an author on the new study.
For pollutants, there is no away
Pollutants can travel long distances through the atmosphere on dust particles and water molecules. Previous studies have shown that Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets contain high levels of pollutants that traveled thousands of kilometers before dropping onto ice and being incorporated into glaciers. This phenomenon of high levels of contamination far from sources of pollution, known as the Arctic paradox, is also seen in high mountain glaciers like those in the Himalaya.
The Nam Co Basin, on the central Tibetan Plateau in the Himalaya between the Gangdise-Nyainqȇntanglha mountains to the north and the Nyainqȇntanglha range to the south, is home to more than 300 glaciers that covered nearly 200 square kilometers in 2010. But the ice is melting: Between 1999 and 2015, the total volume of ice in the Nam Co Basin decreased by nearly 20 percent.
Due to global warming, Himalayan glaciers are melting at an unprecedented rate, releasing decades of accumulated pollutants into ecosystems downstream, Wang said. To better understand this cycle, Wang and colleagues measured the concentrations of a class of chemicals used in pesticides called perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in glacial ice and snow, meltwater runoff, rain and lake water in Nam Co Basin.
By testing ice, snow and water samples collected in the Nam Co Basin, Wang and colleagues found glaciers in the region are releasing around 1,342 milligrams of PFAAs per day into Lake Nam Co. They detected levels as high as 2,171 picograms per liter in the lake. Under these conditions, the estimated total annual input of PFAAs into Lake Nam Co is approximately 1.81 kilograms per year.
"In general, the results are comparable to previous studies on lakes in polar regions," the team wrote.
That kind of influx of PFAAs can have an impact on aquatic life in the lake and downstream, said Kimberley Miner, a geochemist and climate scientist at the University of Maine in Orono who was not involved in the new study.
PFAAs are known for having a very long lifespan. The chemicals don't regularly biodegrade and are readily passed through organisms and ecosystems, while being continually concentrated through various biogeochemical processes, Miner said. The new study did not include a toxicity risk assessment of these levels on aquatic life, but previous studies suggest that eating fish caught in the lake could be detrimental to human health, she says.
"The bioaccumulation potential for these chemicals is extraordinary," Miner said.
First, microorganisms and insects take up molecules into their tissues, then fish and other predators eat them, passing the contaminants up the food web in higher and higher concentrations.
"This [Nam Co Basin] water also feeds directly into the water resources in India," she added.
The study adds important data to the bigger picture of how pollutants cycle around the globe, Miner said. Similar studies have been conducted at the poles and in Europe, but not as much is known about pollutants in the Himalaya. Each mountain range has its own characteristics that influence how chemicals move through the environment, she added.
"The Earth is a closed system. Everything released on the Earth, stays somewhere on the Earth," Miner said.
#EarthOvershootDay; #regenerationOfEarthEcosystem; #GlobalFootprintNetwork
Ottawa, July 29 (Canadian-Media) Earth Overshoot Day (EOD) is being observed today all over the world, media reports said.
World Overshoot Day (above)/Facebook Earth Overshoot day (below)/Facebook
EOD marks the date when humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year.
This year the world is observing the EOD much earlier, three months earlier than 20 years ago.
Earth Overshoot Day is hosted and calculated by Global Footprint Network (GFN), an international research organization that provides decision-makers with a menu of tools to help the human economy operate within Earth’s ecological limits and promotes real-world solutions that that accelerate the transition to one-planet prosperity
The concept of Earth Overshoot Day was first conceived by Andrew Simms of the UK think tank New Economics Foundation, which partnered with Global Footprint Network in 2006 to launch the first global Earth Overshoot Day campaign. At that time, Earth Overshoot Day fell in October. World Wide Fund (WWF), the world’s largest conservation organization, has participated in Earth Overshoot Day since 2007.
Earth Overshoot Day is not just one special day of the year. It is an effort to celebrate biocapacity, our planet’s biological power to regenerate life. This primary productivity of nature is the source for all life, including human life.
With rising relevance of biocapacity and how we manage determines humanity’s future as we face the daunting challenges of climate change and resource constraints.
Understanding biocapacity’s relevance enables us to better understand how to design cities and economies with significantly higher chances of long-term success. This, and more, is explained in Ecological Footprint: Managing Our Biocapacity Budget.
This book demonstrates how ecological overshoot is shaping the 21st century and shows that the only path forward, for humanity’s sake, is to run our economies on nature’s regeneration, not on natural capital liquidation.
And we emphasize that it can be done. The key tool for the job is Footprint and biocapacity accounting, applied to countries, cities and companies.
(Reporting by Asha Bajaj)