#UNHCR; #RefugeeChildrenEducation; #Covid19; #VirtualEducation
UNHCR/Canadian-Media: COVID-19 is wreaking havoc on the lives of young children, students, and youth. The disruption of societies and economies caused by the pandemic is aggravating the pre-existing global education crisis and is impacting education in unprecedented ways.
A mother helps her daughter as she attends a virtual class in Jakarta, Indonesia. The unique nature of the pandemic places parents as first-line responders for children’s survival, care, and learning. This places a burden on all families, and especially the most vulnerable.
Photo: © World Bank
Even before COVID-19 hit, the world was experiencing a learning crisis. 258 million children of primary- and secondary-school age were out of school, and the Learning Poverty rate in low- and middle-income countries was 53 percent – meaning that over half of all 10-year-old children could not read and understand a simple text. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the figure was closer to 90 percent.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the learning crisis, and the impact on the human capital of this generation of learners is likely to be long-lasting. At the peak of school closures in April 2020, 94 percent of students – or 1.6 billion children – were out of school worldwide, and, still, around 700 million students today are studying from home, in a context of huge uncertainty and with families and schools having to navigate across options of hybrid and remote learning, or no schooling at all. In the vast majority of countries, there is no end in sight to this uncertainty. Early evidence from several high-income countries has already revealed learning losses and increases in inequality.
Young children are particularly at risk since the pandemic is exacerbating existing disparities in nutrition, health, and stimulation, and services to support these children are too often overlooked in the pandemic response. Most early childhood education institutions are closed. And the unique nature of the pandemic places parents as first-line responders for children’s survival, care, and learning. This places a burden on all families, and especially the most vulnerable.
Adding to this global shock to education systems is the negative impact of the unprecedented global economic contraction on family incomes, which increase the risk of school dropouts, and also results in the contraction of government budgets and strains on public education spending. The extended school closures, together with this economic downturn, is a twin unprecedented shock to education.
Due to learning losses and increases in dropout rates, this generation of students stand to lose an estimated $10 trillion in earnings, or almost 10 percent of global GDP, and countries will be driven even further off-track to achieving their Learning Poverty goals – potentially increasing Learning Poverty levels to 63 percent.
Source: Azevedo (2020). Pessimistic Scenario (of 70% of school closure, very low mitigation effectiveness, no remediation, and WB-MPO June). For more details on the simulation methodology, see Azevedo et al (2020)
Historical data and initial evidence from this pandemic suggest an inequality catastrophe in the making. Similar to the very different experiences Sutil and Rosa faced in 2020 in Indonesia, in all countries in the world we see immense differences in what rich and poor students experience. COVID-19 poses an even higher risk to girls’ education and well-being, as girls are more likely to drop out of school and are also more vulnerable to violence and face child marriage and adolescent fertility. Vulnerable groups such as children with disabilities, ethnic minorities, refugees, and displaced populations are also less likely to access remote learning materials and to return to school post-crisis.
Tertiary education system is also in a deep crisis
At its peak, 220 million tertiary education students were impacted by closures of campuses globally. The tertiary education system is critical for countries’ growth. It is too soon to know the full impact on the declines and decreases in enrollment rates due to the pandemic, but severe losses of current and potential future students are expected.
Unprecedented disruption was also reported for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). According to the ILO-UNESCO-WB survey, 90 percent of respondents reported a complete closure of TVET centers in their countries as the continuity of practical skills training as well as assessment and certification of practical skills has been hit particularly hard due to the social distancing measures.
As a result, this generation of students, and especially the more disadvantaged, may never achieve their full education and earnings potential. This is not acceptable, and urgent and effective action is required to address these differential learning losses, which is critical to moving forward so that these gaps don’t widen.
Ramping up World Bank support to countries
The World Bank responded to the pandemic immediately, ramping up its support to countries through a variety of different channels and on different priority interventions. In all, the World Bank is supporting COVID-19 response investments in 62 countries, covering the entire cycle from early childhood to higher education. The Bank’s overall new commitments in education during the last fiscal year reached US$5.3 billion, the largest figure ever, and expects to add another US$6.2 billion this year. Our active portfolio surpasses $20.6 billion.
The World Bank’s education teams are working with countries along three phases of the COVID-19 response: i. Coping; ii. Managing continuity; and, iii. Improving and accelerating.
Source: World Bank 2020
So far, World Bank efforts are reaching over 400 million students and 16 million teachers – about one-third of the student population and nearly a quarter of the teacher workforce in current client countries.
The World Bank is also providing just-in-time policy advisory support in 65 countries and are leveraging partnerships (with UNICEF, DFID, University of Harvard, University of Oxford, John Hopkins University, OECD, UNESCO, and others) to continue supporting country responses to the pandemic.
Our operational and policy support is not just responding to the crisis, but is building back better so that systems don’t replicate the problems that led to a learning crisis before COVID-19 and instead use this window of opportunity to shape more resilient systems, better prepared to cope with future shocks, as well as more equitable systems that ensure opportunities for all.
Bringing global knowledge and tools to the country levelA critical challenge of the response to the rapidly evolving crisis is providing up-to-date and evidence-based information to countries to support them in making the difficult decisions they face in addressing the COVID pandemic.
The World Bank is supporting countries with this by providing them with tools and guidance on remote learning and school re-openings, such as a decision-making toolkit on remote learning options; remote learning assessment solutions; bringing reading materials to home; measuring the quality of teaching practices in the classroom and using these observations to provide continuous, practical support to teachers; identifying and developing teacher professional development solutions using EdTech, and building a compendium of structured lesson plans for teaching and uses of multimodal technology (TV, Radio, Mobile, digital content, and platforms).
Laying the groundwork for the future, now
Country challenges vary, but there is a menu of options for countries to choose from to cope with the pandemic shocks, to recover, and to lay the foundations to build back better, more resilient, and equitable education systems.
An urgent priority is to return to learning. Learning losses are mounting, and it is critical that children and youth re-engage with the learning process, either with effective remote learning, hybrid options, or returning to safe schemes of presential education. Many countries are already managing flexible schemes in which schools open partially or close according to the sanitary conditions. It is a complex balance of managing health risks with the huge learning losses, particularly among the poor.
Specifically, there are 10 actions on which countries can take decisions to recover and accelerate learning:
Assessing learning loss and monitor progress, when children return to school and during remote instruction;
Providing remedial education and socio-emotional support to help students catch-up and ensure school retention;
Restructuring the academic calendar, to adjust for lost school days due to the pandemic;
Adapting the curriculum, to prioritize foundational learning (including social-emotional learning) accounting for the lost time;
Preparing and supporting teachers, to manage burnout, improve digital skills, identify those students needing support and adjust instruction to meet them where they are at;
Preparing and supporting school management, to develop and implement plans that ensure health and safety conditions for children’s return to schools and learning continuity;
Communicating with stakeholders, to build ownership and support from parents/ caregivers, teachers, school staff and the broader community for school reopening plans;
Encouraging re-enrolment, with special emphasis on at-risk of dropout populations;
Minimizing disease transmission in schools, supporting campaigns for vaccination rollout and following epidemiological guidelines for sanitation and hygiene to prevent outbreaks, activation of remote instruction; and
Supporting learning at home, by distributing books, digital devices where possible and resource packs for remote learning to children and parents.
Education technology can be a powerful tool to implement the above 10 actions by supporting teachers, children, principals, and parents; expanding accessible digital learning platforms, including radio/TV/Online learning resources (which is here to stay); and using data to identify and help at-risk children, personalize learning, and improve service delivery.
Looking ahead to the ‘Future of Learning’While COVID-19 poses huge challenges, the crisis offers an opportunity to transform and reimagine education and to start realizing a vision for the Future of Learning where all children learn with joy, rigor, and purpose in school and beyond. In fact, this is a window of opportunity to reimagine education, with a vision of how schools will be shaped in the future – a future that has been propelled to today.
The pandemic opens a once in a lifetime opportunity, where long overdue investments in technology, teachers, and parents and communities, might happen faster and better. Countries can build on the lessons of the pandemic:
The digital divide must be closed
We need to invest aggressively in teachers’ professional development and use technology to enhance their work,
Parents play a critical role in their children’s education, and need to be supported in that role, and Resilient systems require better education conditions at home, devices, connectivity, and books.
The critical policy challenge is to make sure that this window of opportunity is not lost, and countries use this momentous crisis as THE opportunity to start seeing a turning point in addressing the learning crisis. The comprehensive reforms that are needed in each one of our client countries can be framed in the five-pillar approach, summarized recently in the Future of Learning report.
While there is no single path toward the future of learning – countries can draw lessons from the pandemic and chart their own path with visionary and bold action to implement targeted investments and reforms starting today so that their:
Learners are prepared and motivated to learn;
Teachers are effective and valued;
Learning resources, including curricula, are diverse and high-quality;
Schools are safe and inclusive spaces;
Education systems are well-managed.
Infographic: Realizing the Future of Learning. Image credit: UNHCR
Throughout these five pillars, education technology can be a powerful tool to support and connect teachers, students, parents, and broader communities, and build education systems that are equitable, effective, and resilient.
#Africa; #CivilWar; #AfricanAmericanFuneralHomes
Africa/Canadian-Media: Black owned and operated funeral homes with a rich heritage and culture were among the first family businesses established by African Americans after the abolition of slavery, Library of Congress (LoC) reports said.
Traditions surrounding death that cater to the needs of the black community are maintained in the African American funeral homes, including burials, wakes, and home visit
Horses and carriages in front of funeral home of C.W. Franklin, undertaker, Chattanooga, Tennessee, ca 1899. Image credit: LoC
The death services industry developed during the Civil War when the bodies of soldiers needed to be embalmed for transportation for burial, moved from a trade to a professional business and by viewed by many within the industry as a spiritual calling and are honored to do counseling and helping people at a difficult time in their live including comforting their families; providing information on funeral service options; and filing death certificates and other legal documents.
Burial traditions are maintained by the African American funeral directors as home-going or celebration of life ceremonies with a distinctive way of grieving, often including a level of theater and pageantry and sound recordings of funeral sermons from the late 1890s are maintained by the the LoC.
A collection of digital Funeral Services Workers in the Carolinas, and these interviews are available in American Folklife Center’s Occupational Folklife Project (OFP) of LoC which highlights funeral directors’ role as a pastoral counselor offering support, guidance, dignity, respect, and making a difference in people’s lives under very trying circumstances. To date, fieldworkers across the United States have recorded more than 900 audio and audiovisual oral history interviews with workers in scores of trades, industries, and crafts.
The National Association of Negro Funeral Directors was established as a professional organization affiliated with the National Negro Business League, founded by Booker T. Washington in 1900. The League worked to advance the commercial and financial development of African Americans to bring African American families into the middle class through a variety of professional careers. The organization continues to exist today as the National Business League.
National Negro Business League Executive Committee, Bain News Service, publisher.
Image credit: LoC
The funeral director and his family often lived upstairs in the funeral parlor, and without access to traditional credit markets, the business was a family affair with the the majority of the funeral businesses remain small, local, and typically family-owned independent businesses.
Carnie Bragg, owner of Bragg Funeral Home, poses in front of the business, 1994. From the Working in Paterson Project Collection. Image credit: LoC
Generally college educated, having studied mortuary science serve as undertakers, who are apprenticed to learn their craft. The resources of African American funeral directors, who provided financial support and gathering spaces to the movement led to the Historical Civil Rights movement progress.
Label from a promotional water bottle distributed by Don Brown Funeral Home, Ayden, North Carolina, 2016. Part of the Occupational Folklife Project, American Folklife Center. Image credit: LoC