Geneva/Canadian-Media: The 109th International Labor Conference (ILC) has opened, the first to take place virtually due to restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Image credit: © M. Crozet / ILO
For the first time in its history the International Labor Conference is taking place online and will be divided into two segments during the course of the year.
Omar Zniber, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Morocco to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva, was elected President of the Conference in its opening session, on 20 May 2021. He described his election as “a source of pride” for his country and the African region.
“As it is often said, the International Labor Conference is the global parliament of labor, affording governments, employers’ and workers’ organizations of Member States a unique opportunity to hold tripartite discussions about social and labour issues, as well as matters related to the world of work,” he said.
“This year, our Conference takes on a special format and is particularly significant, in view of its deferral last year for reasons we all know too well. Needless to say, high expectations have been placed in the work we will undertake over the next few weeks, and at the resumption of our session, later this year. I shall do my best, together with my Vice-Presidents, to guide our work in that spirit, and will spare no effort to ensure that this Conference is a success for all.”
ILO Director-General, Guy Ryder, welcomed the start of the ILC and the important role to be played by the newly-elected Conference President.
“After the unavoidable deferral of this session last year, I believe that all ILO constituents – Governments, Employers and Workers – shared a common determination that this Conference should go ahead at this time because we had essential work to do and because the institutional continuity of our organization depended very heavily upon it.”
“Mr President, by conducting this Conference successfully under your leadership, the ILO will be taking one more step, and a crucially important one, in overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic which has devastated the world of work over the last year and a half, and in so doing will be making a crucial contribution to building forward better.”
Three Conference Vice-Presidents were also elected during the session: Chad Blackman of Barbados, representing the Government group; Ronnie Goldberg of the United States, representing the Employers’ group; and Annette Chipeleme of Zambia, representing the Workers’ group.
The session closed following the appointment of officers to the committees and working parties. It will reopen on 3 June, when most Conference committees will begin their work, and will run over a period of two and a half weeks.
The plenary will resume on 7 June and will be in session until 19 June.
Items on the agenda in June include a special outcome document on the ILO response to COVID-19 , the discussion of the reports of the Chairperson of the Governing Body and the Director-General, the ILO’s program and budget for 2022-23 , the recurrent discussion on social protection , and consideration of the reports on the application of labor standards during the pandemic and related country case discussions.
The second segment of the Conference will take place from 25 November to 11 December, with an agenda that includes thematic discussions on inequalities and the world of work, as well as skills and life-long learning.
#UN; #EconomicRecovery, #PoorerCountries; #VaccineIneqaulity
New York/Canadian-Media: Although the outlook for global growth has improved, the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as inadequate progress on vaccination in poorer countries, are putting recovery at risk, according to the latest UN economic forecast, published on Tuesday.
A woman in Guinea turns her sewing skills into mask-making during the COVID-19 crisis. Image credit: UNDP
The World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) mid-year report warned widening inequality is threatening global growth, projected at 5.4 per cent this year.
Vaccine access critical
The mid-year forecast updates the WESP report published in January by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA).
It examines the performance of the world economy since the pandemic began, as well as the impact of global policy responses and post-crisis recovery scenarios.
A mixed picture
The 5.4 per cent in projected global growth this year follows a sharp contraction of 3.6 per cent in 2020, and reflects an upward revision from the original forecast.
While the world’s two largest economies - China and the United States - are on the road to recovery, growth remains fragile and uncertain in several countries in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
Many countries will not see economic output return to pre-pandemic levels until 2022 or 2023.
“For a vast majority of developing countries, economic output will remain below 2019 levels for most of 2021”, the authors said. “Amid insufficient fiscal space to stimulate demand, many of these countries will face low and stagnant growth and the prospect of a lost decade.”
Trade strong but uneven
The report also details strong but uneven recovery in global trade, which has already surpassed pre-pandemic levels due to demand for electrical and electronic equipment, personal protective equipment, and other manufactured goods.
Economies which depend on manufacturing have fared better, however countries which rely on tourism, or commodities, are unlikely to see a quick rebound.
Tourism services in particular, will remain depressed due to slow lifting of restrictions on international travel, coupled with fears of new waves of COVID-19 infection.
Women hit hardest
The pandemic has pushed an estimated 114.4 million people into extreme poverty, with women accounting for around 58 million of that total.
The report found that while women have been at the forefront of the crisis--
representing most health workers, caregivers and essential service providers—they have also been the hardest hit in several ways.
During the pandemic, labour force participation shrunk by two per cent worldwide, compared to only 0.2 per cent during the global financial crisis in 2007-8, but more women than men were forced to leave their jobs to meet family demands. Women-owned businesses have also fared disproportionately worse, according to the report.
COVID-19 has also dealt sharp blows to services for women’s health, and reproductive health, and the disruption to education has helped undermine global progress towards gender equality. There has also been a spike in gender-based violence, which UN Women has labelled a “shadow pandemic.”
Ensure inclusive recovery
As women are also underrepresented in decision-making surrounding the pandemic, and in economic policy responses, the report highlighted why recovery must be inclusive.
“The pandemic has pushed nearly 58 million women and girls into extreme poverty, dealing a huge blow to poverty reduction efforts worldwide, and exacerbated gender gaps in income, wealth and education, impeding progress on gender equality”, said Hamid Rashid, Chief of the Global Economic Monitoring Branch at DESA, and the lead author of the report.
#NarcoticRedLipstick; #PopularForMistresses, #DrMarciaAnnMimsCoppertino;
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A trend of lip color of all shades also became popular in Ancient Egypt, where Cleopatra was known to wear lip paint created using crushed insects mixed into a vibrant paste.
To give the early lipstick a variety of hues, textures, and finishes, other additives, such as groundfish scales and harmful elements were used, some of which were toxic when applied to the skin, but over time such practices became a history.
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Narcotic Red Lipstick. Image credit: 21daysmistress.org
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#California; #NARCOTICLOVER; #DrMarciaAnnMimsCoppertino; #68BillionDollarsPerfumeIndustry2021
Beverly Hills, California/Canadian-Media "NARCOTIC LOVER", conceived by Master Couturier Dr. Marcia Ann Mims Coppertino is the newest fragrance to hit the market in Europe, Latin America, and the United States.
NARCOTIC LOVER. Image credit: www.21daymistress.org
NARCOTIC LOVER. Image credit: www.21daymistress.org
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NARCOTIC LOVER. Image credit: www.21daymistress.org
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#DigitalLabor, #laborRelations, #socialProtection, #workersRights, #technologicalChange
Geneva (ILO News), Digital labor platforms have increased five-fold worldwide in the last decade according to the ILO’s latest World Employment and Social Outlook 2021 report.
ILO. Image credit: Twitter handle
This growth has underlined the need for international policy dialogue and regulatory cooperation in order to provide decent work opportunities and foster the growth of sustainable businesses more consistently.
According to the report World Employment and Social Outlook 2021: The role of digital labor platforms in transforming the world of work, digital labor platforms are providing new work opportunities, including for women, persons with disabilities, young people, and those marginalized in traditional labor markets. Platforms also allow businesses to access a large flexible workforce with varied skills while expanding their customer base
The report focuses on two main types of digital labor platforms: online web-based platforms, where tasks are performed online and remotely by workers, and location-based platforms, where tasks are performed at a specified physical location by individuals, such as taxi drivers and delivery workers. Its findings are based on surveys and interviews with some 12,000 workers and representatives of 85 businesses around the world in multiple sectors. New challenges for workers and businesses. The challenges for platform workers relate to working conditions, the regularity of work and income, and the lack of access to social protection, freedom of association, and collective bargaining rights. Working hours can often be long and unpredictable. Half of the online platform workers earn less than US$2 per hour. In addition, some platforms have significant gender pay gaps. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed many of these issues, says the report.
Many businesses face challenges relating to unfair competition, non-transparency with regard to data and pricing, and high commission fees. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s) also have difficulties accessing finance and digital infrastructure.
“All workers, regardless of employment status, need to be able to exercise their fundamental rights at work," said Guy Ryder, ILO Director-General.
The new opportunities created by digital labor platforms are further blurring the previously clear distinction between employees and the self-employed. Working conditions are largely regulated by the platforms’ terms of service agreements, which are often unilaterally determined. Algorithms are increasingly replacing humans in allocating and evaluating work, and administering and monitoring workers.
With platforms operating across multiple jurisdictions, coherent and coordinated policies are needed to ensure they provide decent work opportunities and foster the growth of sustainable businesses, the report says.
“Digital labor platforms are opening up opportunities that did not exist before, particularly for women, young people, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in all parts of the world. That must be welcomed. The new challenges they present can be met through global social dialogue so that workers, employers, and governments can fully and equally benefit from these advances. All workers, regardless of employment status, need to be able to exercise their fundamental rights at work,” said ILO Director-General Guy Ryder.
Digital divide costs and benefits of digital platforms are not shared equally across the world. Ninety-six percent of investments in such platforms are concentrated in Asia, North America, and Europe. Seventy percent of revenues are concentrated in just two countries, the United States and China.
Work on online web-based platforms is outsourced by businesses in the global North and performed by workers in the global South, who earn less than their counterparts in developed countries. This uneven growth of the digital economy perpetuates a digital divide and risks exacerbating inequalities. A way forward
Many governments, enterprises, and workers’ representatives, including unions, have begun to address some of these issues but their responses are varied. This leads to uncertainty for all parties.
Since digital labor platforms operate across multiple jurisdictions, international policy dialogue and coordination is needed to ensure regulatory certainty and the application of international labor standards says the report.
It calls for global social dialogue and regulatory cooperation between digital labor platforms, workers, and governments, which could lead over time to a more effective and consistent approach towards a number of objectives to ensure that:
Workers’ employment status is correctly classified and is in accordance with national classification systems.
There is transparency and accountability of algorithms for workers and businesses.
Self-employed platform workers can enjoy the right to bargain collectively.
All workers, including platform workers, have access to adequate social security benefits, through the extension and adaptation of policy and legal frameworks where necessary.
Platform workers can access the courts of the jurisdiction in which they are located if they so choose.
#ILO; #CEACRReport; #seafarer, #workingconditions, #ILOconventions, #inequality, #ILOrecommendations, #internationallabourstandards, #vulnerablegroups, #COVID-19
ILO/Canadian-Media: The Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) is one of the key elements of the ILO’s supervisory system for International Labour Standards. It is an independent body composed of 20 high-level legal experts, charged with examining the application of ILO Conventions and Recommendations by ILO Member States. It has just published its annual report. ILO News discussed the main findings with Corinne Vargha, Director of the International Labour Standards Department.
ILO. Image credit: Twitter handle
1. ILO News: What were the key findings and recommendations of the report?
The key message is that the COVID-19 crisis did not suspend obligations under ratified international labour standards (ILS) and the concrete commitments made by ILO Member States to protect the dignity and freedom of people at work remained during the current pandemic, and will strengthen the resilience of societies in building back better. Any derogations should be exercised within clearly defined limits of legality, necessity, proportionality and non-discrimination.
The CEACR also identified some specific challenges resulting from the pandemic:
During its 2020 session the CEACR formulated some 1,700 comments related to compliance with ILS. These consistently urged ILO Member States to prevent a downward spiral in labour conditions and pursue a virtuous cycle of recovery and development, consistent with lawful measures to protect the health of the public. ILS, coupled with effective and authoritative supervision can be a fundamental part of the solution to this crisis, while recovery measures that weaken labour law protection would further undermine social cohesion and stability and erode public confidence that policy-makers understand their needs.
3. ILO News: Normally, ILO Member States submit reports detailing how Conventions they have ratified are being applied. Were Member States able to fulfill this obligation in 2020?
Knowing it was very challenging for countries to meet their reporting obligations, the ILO’s Governing Body requested Member States to provide supplementary information on reports submitted last year. Nearly 900 reports were received by the start of the CEACR session.
4. ILO News: The CEACR also released an addendum to its previous General Survey of some ILO instruments related to employment policy.
In November 2019, the CEACR adopted a comprehensive General Survey on Promoting employment and decent work in a changing landscape . The Addendum, adopted in December 2020, examined the impact of the pandemic on the application of eight instruments related to the strategic objective of employment. In particular, measures taken to prevent transmission of COVID-19, stabilize economies, reduce enterprise closures and job losses, and support the sectors, groups and individuals most affected by the pandemic, including those in the informal economy. It also highlighted good practices and made recommendations for greater preparedness and resilience in facing future crises. Both the General Survey and Addendum will be discussed at the 2021 International Labour Conference.
#Rome; #FAO; #DigitalFinancialTransfers
Rome/Canadian-Media: In another step towards creating a "digital FAO", the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is committing to increasing by 50 percent its delivery of digital financial transfers and vouchers to beneficiaries.
Identity verification for a benefits program in Burkina Faso. Image credit: FAO
As part of joining the Better Than Cash Alliance, FAO is also pledging to expand its use of digital payments in at least ten more of its Decentralized Offices.
Director-General QU Dongyu set these ambitious targets, while officially joining the Better Than Cash Alliance. The Alliance is a United Nations-hosted partnership of governments, companies, and international organizations that accelerates the transition from cash to digital payments in a way designed to generate savings and boost transparency and efficiency while also reducing poverty and driving inclusive growth.
"We must make sure that farmers and rural population are empowered to participate in and benefit from the digital world," said the Director-General. "This partnership is a signal of our commitment to leave no one behind. Cash in the digitized form will open numerous doors for people engaged in small-scale agri-food activities and offer great benefits. It is a high road to resilience."
"FAO's announcement today is a landmark for the agriculture sector in emerging economies. FAO's visionary leadership means that millions of small-holder farmers will now get the assistance they need more quickly, safely, and transparently. It also means those farmers - many of whom are women - will have access to a wider range of related services to improve their livelihoods", said Dr. Ruth Goodwin-Groen, Managing Director of the Better Than Cash Alliance. "We are delighted that FAO is joining other member UN agencies, including UNHCR, UNICEF, and WFP, in their bold commitment to responsible digitization of financial transfers to those most in need. This is even more important now as the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing poverty and inequality."
Under Director-General QU's leadership, FAO is taking big steps to embrace and produce digital solutions, as they are destined to affect every actor in the global agri-food systems and can be designed to offer opportunities to address the challenges of poverty, hunger, inequality, and climate change.
FAO already uses mobile money transfers. One example is in Somalia where its Mobile Money and Livelihood Assistance platform delivers cash directly to beneficiaries' cell phones, allowing farming families to purchase goods and services they need most in their local markets. Recipients are registered with the use of biometric data, which is evolving into a voice-recognition system, making this a safer, cheaper, and better-targeted means of conveyance than physical delivery and distribution.
Joining the Better Than Cash Alliance represents a step-change in scaling up such efforts on all levels, and participating in an exchange on best practices in a fast-moving sector.
The new partnership holds significant promise, as FAO has already reached more than 19 million people in 58 countries with cash and voucher programs. In 2019 alone, FAO transferred almost $50 million - a bit under half in digital form - to 2.8 million beneficiaries in 29 countries.
As FAO's field activities - aiming to strengthen the resilience of rural livelihoods to shocks by supporting productive investment in agriculture - tend to engage vulnerable people living in rural dispersed and remote areas with limited infrastructure access, its digitalization experiences and needs will complement those of other Alliance members.
On the ground
Scaling up digitized financial transfers enables direct contact to beneficiaries, many of whom have no bank account, and avoids the need for physical cash distribution, which entailed transporting banknotes to hard-to-reach areas - especially amid conflicts or in the wake of natural disasters - and engaging agents to act as distributors.
Today, digital payment options continue to grow, accelerating our ability to reach the unbanked while mitigating financial risks. Building broader digital networks allows broader participation, thus intensifying the pace of adoption and transformation of local economies.
"Cash injects value in local economies, and digital cash is likely to produce an even stronger effect through financial inclusion, by fostering greater access for the beneficiary to credits, loans, and other financial instruments that have typically been scarce in rural economies and have curbed investment as a result," says Étienne Juvanon du Vachat, from FAO's Office of Emergencies and Resilience specializing in cash and voucher design. "A mobile wallet opens the door to more services."
Compared with traditional rural finance systems reliant on trust and authority, e-money can bolster programs aimed at fostering opportunities for women and youth. At the same time, it is quite adaptable to diverse existing community savings and loan institutions such as tontines or hawala, he added.
FAO's showcase project in Somalia proved invaluable when the COVID-19 emergency disrupted movement. Since March 2020, FAO has transferred the equivalent of $38.1 million to over 187 000 households, providing them the means to acquire food and agricultural inputs to support local food security and supply.
In Mozambique, in 2020, FAO deployed an adapted version of the ecosystem initially developed in Somalia to move an existing voucher system onto a 100-percent digital foundation. Beneficiaries, in particular targeted women farmers, use the vouchers to access seeds and fertilizers.
Digitization adds incentives to suppliers to adapt to the technology, helping consolidate system-wide digital literacy and protect beneficiaries' personally identifiable information, which in turn can enhance factors of production and marketing opportunities for broader communities. The process can take time but adoption is rapid, and pandemic containment measures appear to have accelerated recognition of the merits of digitization.
"The greatest challenge in this effort is successfully bridging the last mile connecting FAO to the most vulnerable. There is no single widely accepted means of digital payments. However, we are on the cusp of significant change. Complexity will diminish and as it does, the impact will grow," says William Marvin, Deputy Director of FAO's Finance Division.
As Members pursue measures such as digitizing their social protection systems, synergies for FAO will grow, he says. "Sometimes digital payments work better in the developing world as they are leaping a whole generation. There's a lot of potential for leveraging partnerships between the private and public sectors," he adds.
Russian Federation, WFP provide support to families of most vulnerable school children in Tajikistan
#UN; #WFP; #RussianFederation
UN/WFP/Canadian-Media: The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) has begun delivering fortified wheat flour and vegetable oil to the families of vulnerable schoolchildren in the Khatlon Region of Tajikistan, supported by USD 1 million from the Russian Federation.
WFP. Image credit: Wikipedia.
The 1,200 tons of wheat flour and 50 tons of vegetable oil were purchased will meet the needs of around 22,000 households. Families living in Sughd and Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous (GBAO) regions, Roghun town as well as the districts of Rasht Valley will receive similar support.
“For many years, Russia has been helping build an effective national school feeding system in Tajikistan. In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, it was important for us to provide additional targeted assistance to schoolchildren and their families who need it most. We believe that this will not only enrich their diet, but also contribute to their educational outcomes,” said the Russian Ambassador to Tajikistan Igor Semenovich Lyakin-Frolov.
“We are thankful to the Russian Federation for its contribution to the WFP School Feeding Programme. COVID-19 has impacted household food and nutrition security, especially among the vulnerable population. The additional contribution comes timely, which allowed us to deliver the food assistance at the peak lean season when household food insecurity is at its highest due to high food prices and limited income generating opportunities.” said WFP Deputy Country Director and Representative, a.i. in Tajikistan Mariko Kawabata.
This food assistance remains part of the WFP School Feeding Programme, reaching over 600,000 students from grades 1 to 4 in 2,000 schools across 52 rural districts of Tajikistan with regular healthy and nutritious meals. In 2020, Russia allocated USD 5 million to WFP to purchase 3,000 tons of fortified wheat flour and over 300 tons of vegetable oil for schools in Tajikistan. As part of its response to COVID-19, WFP provided one-off take-home food rations to 24,000 vulnerable families whose children are part of WFP’s School Feeding Programme.
In addition to providing food, the School Feeding Programme is also supporting the technical modernization of Tajikistan's school feeding system, including the renovation and construction of school canteens, bakeries and greenhouses, for which the Russian Federation has allocated more than USD 28 million since 2012.
Russia is a strategic partner of Tajikistan in the field of humanitarian aid. Since 2005, the Government of the Russian Federation has allocated USD 83.5 million for the supply of food to vulnerable people in the country.
Since 1999, the World Food Program has been collaborating with the Government of Tajikistan to improve the national school feeding system. This reflects WFP's strong commitment to changing the lives of the country's population for the better. Providing schoolchildren with healthy meals not only improves nutrition and health, but also improves access to education.
#ILO; #GlobalBusiness; #DevelopingCountries; #Covid19Pandemic
ILO/Canadian-Media: Up to 17,000 garment workers in Lao PDR affected by the COVID-19 pandemic are to each receive two months’ emergency income support worth 900,000 LAK (approximately US$100), ILO News reports said.
Image credit: Twitter handle
The Lao Social Security Organization (LSSO) today announced that one-time cash transfers totalling US$ 1.8 million would help mitigate workers’ lost income and support business continuity while reducing employers’ staff turnover costs. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is funding the initiative, which has been developed with technical support from the International Labor Organization (ILO).
Eligible beneficiaries, of whom 85 per cent are women, will receive the cash transfers by the end of March.
“This support not only benefits workers and garment factories, it also helps strengthen the administrative capacity and payment mechanism of the social security system, as well as enhancing social dialogue and tripartite collaboration in Lao PDR,” said Padeumphone Sonthany, Vice Minister of Labour and Social Welfare.
The Lao PDR garment sector employs some 26,000 workers. It has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic with many factories scaling back production, releasing staff and in some cases closing their doors.
“We are happy that this support has been channelled to the Lao Social Security Organization. A strong social protection system that is adaptive during a crisis and responds to chronic and emerging vulnerabilities is crucial,” said Jens Lütkenherm, German Ambassador to Lao PDR.
With ILO support, the scheme has been developed in line with international social protection principles including national ownership, joint oversight by government, employers and workers as well as transparent and accountable administration. The Association of Lao Garment Industry (ALGI) and the Lao Federation of Trade Unions (LFT) have been involved in its development and will support the scheme’s operation.
“The Lao garment industry has been hit hard by COVID-19. Income support will help workers survive this difficult period and businesses maintain their staff so they are in a better position to resume operations when the impact of the pandemic eases,” said Graeme Buckley, Director of ILO Country Office for Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR.
This emergency program will ‘piggyback’ on LSSO’s existing delivery systems, helping reduce administration costs and speed up delivery, whilst easing the financial strain on the national unemployment insurance scheme. New payment methods will also be piloted by LSSO, with electronic payments made via a local mobile network operator, increasing financial inclusion for garment sector workers, especially those without bank accounts.
The pandemic has greatly increased demand on Lao PDR’s unemployment insurance scheme, with the garment sector alone seeing more than a threefold increase in payments, rising from 406.58 million LAK in 2019 (approximately US$ 44,000) to 1.33 billion LAK during COVID-19 (approximately US$143,000).
#UN; #ILO; #BusinessGrowth; #DigitalEconomy
UN/Canadian-Media: The UN International Labor Organization (ILO) on Tuesday highlighted the need for enhanced international policy cooperation to provide decent work opportunities and foster sustainable business growth in the digital economy.
A motorcycle rider from an Indonesian transportation startup waits for a passenger. Image credit: Unsplash/Afif Kusuma
According to the agency, digital labor platforms – such as remote tasking, and location-based apps where workers are involved in transport or delivery – saw an almost five-fold increase over the last decade. This surge offered new opportunities and presented challenges for both workers and businesses, it added.
“Digital labor platforms are opening up opportunities that did not exist before, particularly for women, young people, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in all parts of the world. That must be welcomed”, Guy Ryder, ILO Director-General, said.
The opportunities created by such platforms are, however, blurring the previously clear distinction between employees and the self-employed, said ILO.
Working conditions are largely regulated by the platforms’ terms of service agreements laid out by businesses themselves, and algorithms are increasingly replacing humans in allocating and evaluating work, and human resources.
“The new challenges they present can be met through global social dialogue so that workers, employers and governments can fully and equally benefit from these advances. All workers, regardless of employment status, need to be able to exercise their fundamental rights at work”, Mr. Ryder said.
Furthermore, with platforms operating across multiple jurisdictions, coherent and coordinated policies are needed to ensure they provide decent work opportunities and foster the growth of sustainable businesses, ILO urged.
Difficulties for workers and businesses
In its new report, World Employment and Social Outlook 2021, ILO outlined challenges for digital platform workers, including over working conditions, hours and income, and the lack of access to social protection, freedom of association and collective bargaining rights. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed many of these issues.
ILO noted that working hours can often be long and unpredictable, wages low, and, on some platforms, a significant gender pay gap exists. Businesses also face challenges such as those relating to unfair competition, non-transparency with regard to data and pricing, and high commission fees, it added.
Furthermore, work on online web-based platforms is outsourced by businesses in the global North, and performed by workers in the global South, who earn less than their counterparts in developed countries, which could exacerbate inequalities and perpetuate the digital divide, ILO said.
Against this backdrop, ILO urged broad dialogue and regulatory cooperation between digital labour platforms, workers and governments, which could lead over time to a more effective and consistent approach.
Such efforts would also ensure that work status is correctly classified, in line with national classification systems; there is greater transparency and accountability of algorithms for workers and businesses; and workers can access the courts of the jurisdiction in which they are located if they so choose.