#Diabetes, #BloodSugar, #VitaminD; #North American Menopause Society; #DrJoAnnPinkerton; #Diabetesstudies; #type2diabetes
New York, Jan 30 (Canadian-Media): Apart from the well-known benefits of vitamin D in promoting bone health, a new study from Brazil -- a vast South American country -- suggests that vitamin D also promotes greater insulin sensitivity and lowers glucose levels as well as the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, media reports said.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the insulin sensitivity of the body decreases.
Type 2 Diabetes Studies/Facebook
680 Brazilian women aged 35 to 74 years participated in this crosssectional study, with a goal to evaluate the possible association between vitamin D deficiency and increased glycemia.
Of the women interviewed, 3.5 percent of them (24) reported using vitamin D supplements, which was found to be negatively associated with high glucose levels.
Study results appeared in the article “Higher serum levels of vitamin D are associated with lower blood glucose levels” published online today today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).
A clear relationship between vitamin D and glycemic control, has been shown in other recent studies, suggesting that vitamin D increases insulin sensitivity and improves pancreatic beta-cell function.
“Although a causal relationship has not been proven, low levels of vitamin D may play a significant role in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” says Dr. JoAnn Pinkerton, executive director of NAMS. “Vitamin D supplementation may help improve blood sugar control, but intervention studies are still needed.”
(Reporting by Asha Bajaj)
#Alzheimer, #SleepDeprivation, #PoorSleep
New York, Jan 28 (Canadian-Media): Poor sleep has long been linked with Alzheimer’s disease, but researchers have understood little about how sleep disruptions drive the disease, media reports said.
Now, studying mice and people, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that sleep deprivation increases levels of the key Alzheimer’s protein tau. And, in follow-up studies in the mice, the research team has shown that sleeplessness accelerates the spread through the brain of toxic clumps of tau – a harbinger of brain damage and decisive step along the path to dementia.
These findings, published online Jan. 24 in the journal Science, indicate that lack of sleep alone helps drive the disease, and suggests that good sleep habits may help preserve brain health.
“The interesting thing about this study is that it suggests that real-life factors such as sleep might affect how fast the disease spreads through the brain,” said senior author David Holtzman, MD, the Andrew B. and Gretchen P. Jones Professor and head of the Department of Neurology. “We’ve known that sleep problems and Alzheimer’s are associated in part via a different Alzheimer’s protein – amyloid beta – but this study shows that sleep disruption causes the damaging protein tau to increase rapidly and to spread over time.”
Tau is normally found in the brain – even in healthy people – but under certain conditions it can clump together into tangles that injure nearby tissue and presage cognitive decline. Recent research at the School of Medicine has shown that tau is high in older people who sleep poorly. But it wasn’t clear whether lack of sleep was directly forcing tau levels upward, or if the two were associated in some other way. To find out, Holtzman and colleagues including first authors Jerrah Holth, PhD, a staff scientist, and Sarah Fritschi, PhD, a former postdoctoral scholar in Holtzman’s lab, measured tau levels in mice and people with normal and disrupted sleep.
Mice are nocturnal creatures. The researchers found that tau levels in the fluid surrounding brain cells were about twice as high at night, when the animals were more awake and active, than during the day, when the mice dozed more frequently. Disturbing the mice’s rest during the day caused daytime tau levels to double.
Much the same effect was seen in people. Brendan Lucey, MD, an assistant professor of neurology, obtained cerebrospinal fluid – which bathes the brain and spinal cord – from eight people after a normal night of sleep and again after they were kept awake all night. A sleepless night caused tau levels to rise by about 50 percent, the researchers discovered.
Staying up all night makes people stressed and cranky and likely to sleep in the next chance they get. While it’s hard to judge the moods of mice, they, too, rebounded from a sleepless day by sleeping more later. To rule out the possibility that stress or behavioral changes accounted for the changes in tau levels, Fritschi created genetically modified mice that could be kept awake for hours at a time by injecting them with a harmless compound. When the compound wears off, the mice return to their normal sleep-wake cycle – without any signs of stress or apparent desire for extra sleep.
Using these mice, the researchers found that staying awake for prolonged periods causes tau levels to rise. Altogether, the findings suggest that tau is routinely released during waking hours by the normal business of thinking and doing, and then this release is decreased during sleep allowing tau to be cleared away. Sleep deprivation interrupts this cycle, allowing tau to build up and making it more likely that the protein will start accumulating into harmful tangles.
In people with Alzheimer’s disease, tau tangles tend to emerge in parts of the brain important for memory – the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex – and then spread to other brain regions. As tau tangles mushroom and more areas become affected, people increasingly struggle to think clearly.
To study whether the spread of tau tangles is affected by sleep, the researchers seeded the hippocampi of mice with tiny clumps of tau and then kept the animals awake for long periods each day. A separate group of mice also was injected with tau tangles but was allowed to sleep whenever they liked. After four weeks, tau tangles had spread further in the sleep-deprived mice than their rested counterparts. Notably, the new tangles appeared in the same areas of the brain affected in people with Alzheimer’s.
“Getting a good night’s sleep is something we should all try to do,” Holtzman said. “Our brains need time to recover from the stresses of the day. We don’t know yet whether getting adequate sleep as people age will protect against Alzheimer’s disease. But it can’t hurt, and this and other data suggest that it may even help delay and slow down the disease process if it has begun.”
The researchers also found that disrupted sleep increased release of synuclein protein, a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s – like those with Alzheimer’s – often have sleep problems.
#GlobalHealth; FrenchStudy; disposablediapersharmful; carcinogen; Anes; Europe; #WorldHealthOrganization; #TheGuardian; #AgnèsBuzyn
Toronto, Jan 28 (Canadian-Media): A new French study, conducted by Anses and published last week reported diapers contain harmful substances including carcinogen, as classified by the World Health Organization, media reports said.
Anes, a French agency in charge of food, environmental, and occupation health and safety, reported disposable diapers being one-quarter plastic, are undesirable to be in contact of child's bare skin for extended periods.
After examining 23 diaper brands between 2016 and 2018, the agency concluded “a number of hazardous chemicals in disposable nappies that could migrate through urine, for example, and enter into prolonged contact with babies’ skin”, reported in The Guardian.
More than 60 chemicals including some banned in Europe for over 15 years and other substances, some found in cigarette smoke or diesel fumes were found in the diapers by the researchers.
15 days have been given to the diaper manufacturers by the French Ministry of Health to get rid of these chemicals.
Although these disposable diapers may not pose immediate health risk to babies wearing them, reported Agnès Buzyn, the Health Secretary, but not to ignore the concerns of risk for children’s health in the long term.
The report also said that extended use of diapers overheats baby boys’ testicles resulting in low sperm count and also poses problems with potty-training as kids can’t easily feel when they’re wet.
The report recommended the elimination or minimizing the use of named substances in disposable nappies and that parents should consider other alternatives.
The report concluded: “There is no epidemiological research allowing us to prove the health effects linked to the wearing of nappies. That said, dangerous chemical substances have been found in the nappies… At the current time and from what we know at the moment, it is not possible to exclude a health risk linked to the wearing of disposable nappies.”
(Reporting by Asha Bajaj)