#Migrations; #ILO; #COVID19; #Employment; #ServiceSector;
GENEVA (ILO News) – The number of international migrant workers globally has risen to 169 million, a rise of three per cent since 2017, according to the latest estimates from the International Labour Organization (ILO).
The share of youth migrant workers (aged 15-24) has also increased, by almost 2 per cent, or 3.2 million, since 2017. Their number reached 16.8 million in 2019.
The new report, ILO Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers: Results and Methodology , shows that in 2019, international migrant workers constituted nearly five per cent of the global labour force, making them an integral part of the world economy.
Yet many migrant workers are often in temporary, informal or unprotected jobs, which expose them to a greater risk of insecurity, layoffs and worsening working conditions. The COVID-19 crisis has intensified these vulnerabilities, particularly for women migrant workers, as they are over-represented in low-paid and low-skilled jobs and have limited access to social protection and fewer options for support services.
“The pandemic has exposed the precariousness of their situation. Migrant workers are often first to be laid-off, they experience difficulties in accessing treatment and they are often excluded from national COVID-19 policy responses,” said Manuela Tomei, Director of the ILO Conditions of Work and Equality Department.
High-income countries continue to absorb the majority of migrant workers
More than two-thirds of international migrant workers are concentrated in high-income countries. Of the 169 million international migrant workers, 63.8 million (37.7 per cent) are in Europe and Central Asia. Another 43.3 million (25.6 per cent) are in the Americas. Hence, collectively, Europe and Central Asia and the Americas host 63.3 per cent of all migrant workers.
The Arab States, and Asia and the Pacific each host about 24 million migrant workers, which, in total, correspond to 28.5 per cent of all migrant workers. In Africa there are 13.7 million migrant workers, representing 8.1 per cent of the total.
The majority of migrant workers – 99 million – are men, while 70 million are women.
Women face more socio-economic obstacles as migrant workers and are more likely to migrate as accompanying family members for reasons other than finding work. They can experience gender discrimination in employment and may lack networks, making it difficult to reconcile work and family life in a foreign country.
More youth are migrating in search of employment
The share of youth among international migrant workers has increased, from 8.3 per cent in 2017 to 10.0 per cent in 2019. This increase is likely to be related to high youth unemployment rates in many developing countries. The large majority of migrant workers (86.5 per cent) remain prime-age adults (aged 25–64).
Services sector is the main employer of migrant workers
In many regions international migrant workers account for an important share of the labour force, making vital contributions to their destination countries’ societies and economies, and delivering essential jobs in critical sectors like health care, transportation, services, agriculture and food processing.
According to the report, 66.2 per cent of migrant workers are in services, 26.7 per cent in industry and 7.1 per cent in agriculture. However, substantial gender differences exist between the sectors: There is a higher representation of women migrant workers in services, which may be partly explained by a growing labour demand for care workers, including in health and domestic work. Men migrant workers are more present in industry.
“Labour migration policies will be effective only if they are based on strong statistical evidence. This report offers sound estimations, based on robust methods and reliable data integrating harmonized complementary sources,” said Rafael Diez de Medina, Chief Statistician and Director of the ILO Department of Statistics. “These policies can then help countries respond to shifts in labour supply and demand, stimulate innovation and sustainable development, and transfer and update skills.”.
#UNHCR; #Refugees; #HealthChallenge; Covid19Pandemic
New York/Canadian-Media: Malaria remained the single most common cause of illness among refugees in 2020, while psychological distress caused by COVID-19, and acute malnutrition constituted major threats to refugees’ health and well-being, according to data released today by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, in its Annual Public Health Global Review.
Paul Aponte (77), from Venezuela, receives his first dose of COVID-19 vaccine in Guayaquil, Ecuador. © UNHCR/Santiago Arcos Veintimilla
In a year marked by the pandemic, UNHCR’s key focus was to advocate for the inclusion of refugees in COVID-19 national response plans. The agency also worked to support national health systems by procuring personal protective equipment, other equipment like oxygen concentrators, COVID-19 tests and medicines, and by increasing intensive care capacity in countries such as Lebanon and Bangladesh.
At the onset of the pandemic, amidst movement restrictions and the fear of getting infected, refugees’ access to health facilities was significantly reduced. However, adaptations were made to ensure that refugees continued to have safe access to essential services. As lockdowns and restrictions eased, the use of health services was largely restored.
“We worked to reduce crowding in clinics, find alternatives to delivering services, such as with remote follow-up, and, above all, to keep refugee communities informed,” said Sajjad Malik, UNHCR’s Director of the Division of Resilience and Solutions. “Special efforts were needed to secure continuity of maternal and neonatal health services, as well as mental health services, given that refugees’ capacity to cope was severely stretched due to COVID-19.”
Overall, during last year, UNHCR supported access to comprehensive primary health care services and referral to secondary and tertiary care in 50 countries, hosting 16.5 million refugees.
In 2020, 112,119 live births were reported from 159 refugee settlements in 19 countries – a similar level to 2019. Neonatal deaths represented a significant proportion of deaths among children under the age of five and maternal mortality continued to raise concerns in most countries where UNHCR operates. Too many women in refugee settings continued to die from pregnancy-related complications which are preventable and treatable. UNHCR works to support clinics with more trained staff, medicine and equipment, in order to manage obstetric emergencies, and save mothers and newborns.
As in 2019, malaria was the single most common cause of morbidity reported among refugees (20 per cent), followed by upper and lower respiratory tract infections. To fight malaria, UNHCR and partners work to secure access to early diagnosis and treatment, and help communities find ways to reduce exposure to mosquito bites, including through insecticide treated mosquito nets. They also advocate for environmental measures to reduce mosquito breeding sites.
Acute malnutrition remained a significant health problem in many UNHCR operations. The onset of the pandemic resulted in mobility restrictions, and UNHCR, in collaboration with partners, had to review the delivery of nutrition programmes to ensure both continuity of care and COVID-19 mitigation measures.
For example, therapeutic and supplementary feeding programmes helped bridge the nutrition gap experienced by children, women, and other people with specific nutritional needs such as those living with HIV and/or tuberculosis. To continue these programmes, UNHCR prepositioned supplies to allow for the provision of rations for a longer duration and reduce the frequency of visits to clinics. Moreover, the agency increased distribution days to reduce crowding. In places such as southern Chad and western Rwanda, UNHCR also provided counseling via radio and telephone on recommended feeding practices for infants and young children.
“As we are in the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, funding is required to sustain the pandemic response in support of national systems,” Malik said. “However, this must not be at the cost of maintaining access to other essential health services. Overall, a much larger investment is needed, to ensure that refugees – just like everyone else – can enjoy the right to the highest attainable physical and mental health.”
#US; #IndependceDay; #USCIS; #NaturalizationCeremonies; #Immigrants; #Citizens
Washington/Canadian-Media: United States (U.S.) Independence Day on July 4 this year would be celebrated by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) by welcoming more than 9,400 new citizens in 170 naturalization ceremonies between June 30 and July 7 to demonstrate its commitment to welcoming immigrants from all over the world.
USCIS. Image credit: Twitter handle
“This year marks the 245th birthday of our Nation,” said Acting USCIS Director Tracy Renaud. “We are committed to promoting policies and procedures that ensure we operate fairly and efficiently, and continue to encourage and embrace the full participation of the newest Americans in our democracy .”
Declaration of Independence in the US was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1776 declaring the 13 American colonies regarded themselves as a new nation the United States of America—a nd were no longer part of the British Empire.
Special Independence Day-themed naturalization ceremonies across the country are hosted by USCIS to commemorate this momentous occasion.
Two special ceremonies would be held on this year’s Independence Day activities including a naturalization ceremony with President Biden at the White House on July 2 and a ceremony with Secretary of Homeland Security Alejandro N. Mayorkas administering the Oath of Allegiance virtually to 22 military service members serving overseas, which took place on June 30.
This year’s Independence Day would be marked by additional ceremonies including a ceremony with Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security John Tien at the USCIS Atlanta office, ceremonies aboard the USS Constitution Museum in Boston with Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Mike Gilday and the Battleship USS Iowa in Los Angeles, and a special ceremony at George Washington’s Mount Vernon.
During these Independence Day-themed ceremonies, USCIS will honor and recognize the commitment and contributions of immigrants made to our Nation, including military members, front-line workers, and COVID-19 heroes who have played a critical role in helping our country respond to and recover from the COVID-19 global pandemic.
Since the beginning of the Biden-Harris administration, a number of steps have been taken by the USCIS to support implementation of Executive Order 14012: Restoring Faith in Our Legal Immigration System and Strengthening Integration and Inclusion Efforts for New Americans, including the reinstatement of the 2008 civics test, which took place in February. Reverting to the 2008 civics test was in keeping with other updates with the same purpose.
USCIS will make these naturalization ceremonies accessible to eligible people.
Following each naturalization ceremony, new U.S. citizens will be encouraged to share their naturalization stories and photos on social media using the hashtag #newUScitizen.