#Washington; #USHolocaustMemorialMuseum; #PreventGenocide; #antisemitism; #disabilityAwareness; #Boethics
Washington (US)/Canadian-Media: The Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its allies and collaborators. The US Holocaust Memorial Museum teaches millions of people each year about the dangers of unchecked hatred and the need to prevent genocide. Learn more about the Holocaust, antisemitism, and genocide below.
US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Image credit: Wikipedia
Co-presented with Washington National Cathedral and the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity 'A Voice of Conscience: Honoring the Life and Legacy of Elie Wiesel' is a free virtual event requiring registration would be showcased on Oct 12,
A carved stone bust of Holocaust survivor, author, and human rights champion Elie Wiesel joins likenesses of Rosa Parks and Eleanor Roosevelt, among others, on the Washington National Cathedral’s Human Rights Porch. Image credit: Danielle Thomas/Washington National Cathedral
This event is held to honor Elie Wiesel’s legacy to defend human rights and combat indifference and intolerance. The Washington National Cathedral added a stone carving to honor him to its Human Rights Porch in April.
The Cathedral and the Museum, in conjunction with the Elie Wiesel Foundation, celebrate Wiesel’s enduring impact as a survivor, teacher, and international voice of conscience.
At this time of rising antisemitism, racism, and group-targeted violence, a reminder of Wiesel’s commitment to the dignity of all people is both timely and necessary. Jon Meacham, the Cathedral’s canon historian, will host leaders across generations in a discussion about Wiesel and the continuing fight for religious freedom, interfaith understanding, and respect for our common humanity.
The Very Rev. Randolph Marshall Hollerith, Dean, Washington National Cathedral
Sara J. Bloomfield, Director, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Elisha Wiesel, The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity
Marion Wiesel, The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity
Jon Meacham, Canon Historian, Washington National Cathedral
Mehnaz Afridi, PhD, Director, Holocaust, Genocide, and Interfaith Education Center, Manhattan College
Madeleine K. Albright, PhD, Chair of Albright Stonebridge Group, part of Dentons Global Advisors, and Professor, Author, Diplomat, and Businesswoman who served as the 64th US Secretary of State
Rabbi Irving “Yitz” Greenberg, Former Chairman of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, President Emeritus, Clal: The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership, Jewish Theologian and Activist
Wai Wai Nu, Witness to the Rohingya genocide in Burma, Founder and Executive Director, Women's Peace Network
Rabbi David Saperstein, Former US Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom
This program is free and open to the public in person or online; registration is required.
For more information, please contact the Washington National Cathedral at 202.537.6200 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
On Oct 13 a free virtual event 'Disability Awareness Month: Remembering The Nazis’ First Victims of Mass Murder' would be showcased from 9:30 am to 10 am (EST) for which no registration is required.
Robert Wagemann, a physically disabled Jehovah's Witness child, sits on his hospital bed in Berlin, circa 1942–43. Image credit: US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Robert Wagemann.
Dr. Edna Friedberg, Historian, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum this event tells the story of Robert Wagemann, who was just four years old when his mother overheard Nazi doctors discussing plans to kill him because of his shattered hip.
During World War II, some medical professionals murdered patients with mental and physical disabilities instead of protecting their patients. An estimated 250,000 people were killed under this program. Join us to learn about the victims—and the perpetrators.
Dr. Patricia Heberer Rice, Senior Historian, United States Holocuast Memorial Museum, would be the guest.
The event can be watched live at facebook.com/holocaust museum. The viewers need a Facebook account to view our program. After the live broadcast, the recording will be available to watch on demand on the Museum’s Facebook and YouTube pages.
Co-presented by the Center for Christian-Jewish Learning at Boston College, the International Institute for Holocaust Research at Yad Vashem, and the Museum's Programs on Ethics, Religion, and the Holocaust, the free virtual event requiring registration 'The Holocaust-Era Archives of Pope Pius XII: The State of the Question' would be showcased on October 17, 2021, 2:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m. EDT.
A portrait of Pope Pius XII taken at Castel Gandolfo in the early 1950s. Courtesy of Michael Pitcairn & C. Harrison Conroy
This webinar is about the archives of 16 million pages that could shed light on the actions of Pope Pius XII and his fellow church leaders as millions of Jews and other victims were being murdered across Europe. It also throws light on the scholarship for Jewish-Christian relations.
Following reflections by Vatican archivist Piero Doria, leading scholars—including the Museum’s Dr. Suzanne Brown-Fleming—will discuss their initial findings and how these documents may lead to a new understanding of this history.
Iael Nidam-Orvieto, Director of the International Institute for Holocaust Research, Yad Vashem
Suzanne Brown-Fleming, Director of International Academic Programs, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum;
David Kertzer, Paul Dupee University Professor of Social Science, Brown University, and
Robert Ventresca, Professor of History, King’s University College at Western University.
For more information, please contact email@example.com.
2021 Northeast Virtual Event 'What You Do Matters' would be held on Oct 19, 2021 between 7:00 pm —7:30 pm EST
As violent antisemitism escalates amid a larger climate of hatred, Holocaust education and its lessons have never been more relevant—and the Museum’s role as a global Holocaust educator more urgently needed. The Museum puts the power of history into the hands of scholars, educators, and students.
This event shows how educators around the country use Museum resources that humanize this history to help young people—our future leaders—think critically about the dangers of unchecked hate. The event will feature a conversation between the Atlantic Editor in Chief Jeffrey Goldberg and Museum Director Sara Bloomfield on "Holocaust History, Antisemitism, and Reaching New Audiences."
'Defying Expectations: Women Resistance Fighters during the Holocaust' a free virtual event requiring registration would be held on Nov 8, 2021, from 7:00 p.m.–8:00 p.m. EST
Members of the resistance in Bialystok, Poland, 1938. Leader Frumka Plotnicka, second from right, died fighting the Nazis in the Będzin ghetto uprising. Beit Lohamei Haghetaot (Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum), Israel
2021 MONNA AND OTTO WEINMANN ANNUAL LECTURE7 p.m. ET | 4 p.m. PT
The Monna and Otto Weinmann Annual Lecture T made possible by Janice Weinman Shorenstein honors Holocaust survivors and their fates, experiences, and accomplishments. Monna Steinbach Weinmann (1906–1991), born in Poland and raised in Austria, fled to England in autumn 1938. Otto Weinmann (1903–1993), born in Vienna and raised in Czechoslovakia, served in the Czechoslovak, French, and British armies; was wounded at Normandy; and received the Croix de Guerre for his valiant contributions during the war. Monna Steinbach and Otto Weinmann married in London in 1941 and immigrated to the United States in 1948.
This even throws more light about their motivations and contributions and the role of gender in Jewish resistance.
Dr. Janice Weinman Shorenstein, former CEO and Executive Director, Hadassah
Dr. Judy Batalion, Author, The Light of Days: The Untold Story of Women Resistance Fighters in Hitler’s Ghettos, and granddaughter of Holocaust survivors
Dr. Sara R. Horowitz, Professor of Comparative Literature and Jewish Studies, York University, Toronto, Canada.
This program is free and open to the public, but reservations are required.
For more information, please contact Katharine White at 202.314.0395 firstname.lastname@example.org.
'2022 Virtual Jack and Anita Hess Faculty Seminar: Bioethics, Disease, and the Holocaust' event would be held virtually from January 3–7, 2022.
Jewish nurses and nursing students gather around a cart outside a coffee house on Judenstrasse in the Netherlands, circa 1940–42. US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Clara Renee Keren Vromen
This seminar probes the history of bioethics, pathology, disease, and the Holocaust on an interdisciplinary body of scholarship, and underscores how the history of the Holocaust informs the fields of bioethics and public health, and vice-versa.
The seminar addresses questions such as: What are the legacies of the Nazis’ uses and abuses of scientific knowledge to serve ideological purposes? How can we understand the continued significance of the Nuremberg Trials and the Nuremberg Code? And what ethical lessons does the Holocaust provide when it comes to practicing medicine and considering public health concerns today, including treating vulnerable patient populations and ensuring access to treatment and vaccines?
The Seminar will provide faculty with a range of interdisciplinary methods, approaches, and pedagogical tools for introducing this aspect of Holocaust studies into undergraduate and graduate classrooms.
Patricia Heberer Rice, PhD, Senior Historian, Director of the Division of the Senior Historian, Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Matthew Wynia, MD, MPH, FACP, Director, Center for Bioethics and Humanities, University of Colorado; Professor, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Colorado School of Public Health.
This Seminar will occur online through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous sessions. Seminar applicants must teach or anticipate teaching relevant courses at accredited institutions in North America. This includes colleges, universities, and community colleges.
Applications must be received in electronic form no later than October 31, 2021.
For questions regarding the application process, please contact email@example.com.
This Seminar is endowed by Edward and David Hess in memory of their parents, Jack and Anita Hess, who believed passionately in the power of education to overcome racial and religious prejudice.
#NoblePrize; #Chemistry; #ToolsToBuildMolecules; #RoyalSwedishAcademyofSciences; #Physics; #Physiology;
New York/Canadian-Media: Nobel Prize in Chemistry was won by two scientists Benjamin List of Germany and Scotland-born David W.C. MacMillan on Wednesday for finding an "ingenious" new way to build molecules that can be used to make everything from medicines to food flavorings.
Image credit: Twitter handle of NobelPrize
Making molecules requiring linking individual atoms together in specific arrangement is a difficult and slow task. Until the beginning of the millennium, chemists had only two methods or catalysts to speed up the process.
But in 2000, both List, of the Max Planck Institute, and MacMillan, of Princeton University, independently reported that small organic molecules can be used to do the same job as big enzymes and metal catalysts.
Since their discovery, the tool has been further refined to make it more efficient, said List, and added the award would allow him even greater freedom in his future work.
The award comes with a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor (over $1.44 million Cdn).
The money comes from a bequest left by the prize's creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896.
Nobel Prize in Physics was won by three scientists Syukuro Manabe, a U.S. researcher originally from Japan, and Klaus Hasselmann of Germany and Giorgio Parisi of Italy on Tuesday for work that found order in seeming disorder, helping to explain and predict complex forces of nature, including expanding our understanding of climate change.
Image credit: Twitter handle of NobelPrize
All three scientists used complex mathematics to explain and predict what seemed like chaotic forces of nature in computer simulations, called modelling which enables scientists to
accurately predict weather a week out and warn about the climate decades in advance.
The prestigious award is accompanied with a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor (over $1.44 million Cdn), which comes from a bequest left by the prize's creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, who died in 1895.
On Monday, the Nobel prize for medicine was awarded to Americans David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries into how the human body perceives temperature and touch.
Image credit: Twitter handle of NobelPrize
Prizes will be awarded over the coming days in the fields of literature, peace and economics.
#RoyalOntarioMuseum; #MyPandemicStory; #ChildrenArtwork; #OpenFreeToPublic; #COVID19GlobalHealthCrisis
Toronto/Canadian-Media: Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) would launch an original exhibition, #MyPandemicStory: Youth Create Portraits of a Pandemic this fall on Oct 23 with powerful presentation of children’s artwork to shine a light on youth experiences of the COVID-19 global health crisis and its impact on a generation.
ROM. Image credit: Website
This is one of the first crowd-sourced pandemic-related exhibitions worldwide to focus on children’s points of view, and is open free to the public with no general admission required to the Museum.
Image: Ambiguity. Image credit: ROM
The callout for #MyPandemicStory art was responded by over 2,300 artworks created independently, with families, or through school projects from across the province, from as far north as Thunder Bay, east to Lancaster and south to Windsor.
A new exhibition space created inside the doors of ROM’s Michael Lee-Chin Crystal (Bloor Street) entrance features sixty (60) of the artworks and together form a stirring portrait of the complex journeys young people have experienced during this pandemic from moments of sorrow, isolation to self-discovery, hope and delight and emphasizes the voices of youth through large-format artist quotes that highlight themes such as struggle, perseverance, and connection.
Visitors are provided seating spaces with support material o rest and reflect while a response station invites visitors to share their own responses to the pandemic and contribute to an ongoing conversation in the exhibition.
“This isn’t an art exhibition in the traditional sense,” emphasizes Justin Jennings, ROM Senior Curator of Archaeology of the Americas and curator of the #MyPandemicStory exhibition. “It’s about showcasing the art, but it’s also about showing the wide array of experiences youth have gone through in this pandemic, the depth of which touched us profoundly. #MyPandemicStory is about listening to the artists’ voices, both in their artworks and descriptions of their creative process, in order to support this generation going forward.”
Graphic illustrations by Toronto-based artist Ene Agi show seemingly ever-growing pandemic hair winding across walls and tie the exhibition space together.
The artworks represented in #MyPandemicStory were selected in collaboration between ROM staff and external advisors that included media personality and GEM Ambassador Melissa Grelo; CAMH clinical psychologist Dr. Joanna Henderson; YWHO youth ambassador Aaron Sanqui; Métis/Cree educator and principal Christina Saunders; and artist and activist Syrus Marcus Ware. Members of the COVID-19 mental health study team led by The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) consulted on the exhibition development.
#MyPandemicStory: Youth Create Portraits of a Pandemic runs October 23, 2021 to February 21, 2022. ROM continues to operate at reduced capacity and adheres to the guidelines set out by Ontario Public Health. For more information, please see ROM website.
Opened in 1914, Royal Ontario Museum is among the top 10 cultural institutions in North America, Canada’s largest and most comprehensive museum showcases art, culture and nature from around the world and across all ages. Home to a world-class collection of 13 million art objects and natural history specimens, RON is featured in 40 gallery and exhibition spaces. The country’s preeminent field research institute and an international leader in new and original findings, ROM plays a vital role in advancing our understanding of the artistic, cultural and natural world. Combining its original heritage architecture with the contemporary Daniel Libeskind-designed Michael Lee-Chin Crystal, ROM serves as a national landmark, and a dynamic cultural destination in the heart of Toronto for all to enjoy.
he Museum is now open and we are delighted to welcome you back. For more details and helpful information for planning your visit, please visit www.rom.on.ca
#LoC: #CloudComputing; #AndrewWMellonFoundation; CCHC; #InformationDissemination
Washington/Canadian-Media: With aims to better serve research and creative uses of Library of Congress (LoC) resources, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded $1 million grant in 2019 for the Computing Cultural Heritage in the Cloud (CCHC) initiative, LoC reported.
Cloud Computing. Image credit: Unsplash
CCHC would use the affordances of cloud-based technology to document what is required to support this work–from levels of staff support and costs associated with serving and transforming digital materials.
LoC Labs has partnered this year with three scholars Lincoln Mullen, Lauren Tilton, and Andromeda Yelton, who would explore the Library’s digital collections by using cloud computing services in their individual research projects.
With impressively varied in their aims, Mullen attempts to use machine learning to extract biblical quotations across the Library’s collections; while Tilton seeks to refine and design computer vision by examining approximately 250,000 early 20th century images; and Yelton plans work with clusters conceptually similar documents to create an interactive data visualization to support users who only have a rough idea of the items they’re looking for.
In addition, to engage audiences in transforming access to knowledge, public humanities focus would be used by each of these projects.
LoC would also be informed collectively by these projects about the understanding of the benefits and challenges of using distributed computing environments in large-scale digital library settings.
Results from the individual projects will be documented and shared openly to complement the findings from the institution’s overarching investigation.
In an interviews with Alice Goldfarb who has joined the LC Labs team as an Innovation Specialist for CCHC, Leah Weinryb-Grohsgal, Innovation Specialist at the Library of Congress, and works at the CCHC, Alice said that her work at CCHC is to determine the requirements in a service model for supporting cloud computing digital humanities research in the future to further explore the changes required in to disseminate collections to more people in more ways and build on and contribute to the work other people are doing.
Due to the vast the scale of the Library’s collections, said Alice, they would be benefited to disseminate the collections available for cloud computing as libraries already consider the ethics of this type of work, and we want to make sure to extend this approach to digital work and learn ways to steward and share data in systematic ways digitally.
#AI; #ProteinStructure; #ScienceAndResearch; #CASP
New York/Canadian-Media: Proteins are the minions of life, working alone or together to build, manage, fuel, protect, and eventually destroy cells. To function, these long chains of amino acids twist and fold and intertwine into complex shapes that can be slow, even impossible, to decipher.
Image: A new artificial intelligence program readily predicts the structure of protein complexes, such as the immune signal interleukin-12 (blue) bound to its receptor. Image credit: Ian Haydon/Institute for protein design
Scientists have dreamed of simply predicting a protein’s shape from its amino acid sequence—an ability that would open a world of insights into the workings of life.
“This problem has been around for 50 years; lots of people have broken their head on it,” says John Moult, a structural biologist at the University of Maryland, Shady Grove. But a practical solution is in their grasp.
Several months ago, in a result hailed as a turning point, computational biologists showed that artificial intelligence (AI) could accurately predict protein shapes. That group describes its approach online in Nature today. Meanwhile, David Baker and Minkyung Baek at the University of Washington, Seattle, and their colleagues present their AI-based structure prediction approach online in Science. Their method works on not just simple proteins, but also complexes of proteins.
Baker’s and Baek’s method and computer code have been available for weeks, and the team has already used it to model more than 4500 protein sequences submitted by other researchers. Savvas Savvides, a structural biologist at Ghent University, had tried six times to model a problematic protein. He says Baker’s and Baek’s program, called RoseTTAFold, “paved the way to a structure solution.”
In fall of 2020, DeepMind, a U.K.-based AI company owned by Google, wowed the field with its structure predictions in a biennial competition. Called Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP), the competition uses structures newly determined using laborious lab techniques such as x-ray crystallography as benchmarks. DeepMind’s program, AlphaFold2, did “really extraordinary things [predicting] protein structures with atomic accuracy,” says Moult, who organizes CASP.
But for many structural biologists, AlphaFold2 was a tease: “Incredibly exciting but also very frustrating,” says David Agard, a structural biophysicist at the University of California, San Francisco. In mid-June, 3 days after the Baker lab posted its RoseTTAFold preprint, Demis Hassabis, DeepMind’s CEO, tweeted that AlphaFold2’s details were under review at a publication and the company would provide “broad free access to AlphaFold for the scientific community.” Nature has now rushed to publish that paper to coincide with the Science paper. “It is appropriate that it is not coming out after ours, as our work is really based on their advances,” Baker says.
DeepMind’s 30-minute presentation at CASP had been enough to inspire Baek to develop her own approach. Like AlphaFold2, it uses AI’s ability to discern patterns in vast databases of examples, generating ever more informed and accurate iterations as it learns. When given a new protein to model, RoseTTAFold proceeds along multiple “tracks.” One compares the protein’s amino acid sequence with all similar sequences in protein databases. Another predicts pairwise interactions between amino acids within the protein, and a third compiles the putative 3D structure. The program bounces among the tracks to refine the model, using the output of each one to update the others. DeepMind’s approach involves just two tracks.
Gira Bhabha, a cell and structural biologist at New York University School of Medicine, says both methods work well. “Both the DeepMind and Baker lab advances are phenomenal and will change how we can use protein structure predictions to advance biology,” she says. A DeepMind spokesperson wrote in an email, “It’s great to see examples such as this where the protein folding community is building on AlphaFold to work towards our shared goal of increasing our understanding of structural biology.”
But AlphaFold2 solved the structures of only single proteins, whereas RoseTTAFold has also predicted complexes, such as the structure of the immune molecule interleukin-12 latched onto its receptor. Many biological functions depend on protein-protein interactions, says Torsten Schwede, a computational structural biologist at the University of Basel. “The ability to handle protein-protein complexes directly from sequence information makes it extremely attractive for many questions in biomedical research.”
Baker concedes that AlphaFold2’s structures are more accurate. But Savvides says the Baker lab’s approach better captures “the essence and particularities of protein structure,” such as identifying strings of atoms sticking out of the sides of the protein—features key to interactions between proteins. Last year, AlphaFold2 needed a lot of computing power to work, more than RoseTTAFold. “Now, it seems they’ve accelerated their method since CASP14, and it’s now comparable to RoseTTAFold,” Baek says.
Beginning on 1 June, Baker and Baek began to challenge their method by asking researchers to send in their most baffling protein sequences. Fifty-six head scratchers arrived in the first month, all of which have now predicted structures. Agard’s group sent in an amino acid sequence with no known similar proteins. Within hours, his group got a protein model back “that probably saved us a year of work,” Agard says. Now, he and his team know where to mutate the protein to test ideas about how it functions.
Because Baek’s and Baker’s group has released its computer code on the web, others can improve on it; the code has been downloaded 250 times since 1 July. “Many researchers will build their own structure prediction methods upon Baker’s work,” says Jinbo Xu, a computational structural biologist at the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago. Hassabis says its computer code is now also open source. As a result of both groups’ work, progress should now be swift, Moult says: “When there’s a breakthrough like this, 2 years later, everyone is doing it as well if not better than before.”
#ArtOfPrinting; #tyoeDesigning; #MakingBooks, #RussellMaret
New York/Canadian-Media: Russell Maret, a book artist, type designer and private-press printer working in New York City describes in this post -- which first appeared in the the Library of Congress (LoC) Magazine -- his passion in the magic of making books to transform world, LoC reported.
Russell Maret. Photo: Annie Schlechter.
Two of the earliest-known pieces of European printing, said Maret were made with moveable metal type and the Gutenberg Bible, widely considered one of the most beautiful books ever printed. (The Library’s copy is one of three perfect vellum copies known to exist.)
These two objects, moveable metal type and the Gutenberg Bible, continued Maret constitute what we now call as a book art.
These two objects form an amorphous field populated by printers, papermakers, type designers, engravers and bookbinder and craftspeople.
Each branch of the book arts, similar to any creative field tries to make something out of these base materials of paper, lead and ink that is greater than the sum of its parts.
Printing is a permanent transformation, which is both technical and existential which literally transforms a blank piece of paper into a messenger of ideas.
Permanence in printing is relative, in as much as the permanence of an idea is subject to the shifting interpretations of time (The earth is the center of the universe!). And books, as we all know, can be burned.
In 1989, when Maret 18 years old, he said he inked up a printing press and pulled a proof for the first time and from that instant he was determined to do printing and over 30 years later, he is still determined to do it better.
In 1996 he designed a typeface and since then type design and alphabetical form have become the primary focus of his work. They map new pathways for me to pursue in my books.
Making a book involves, said Maret hard physical work, a high level of attentiveness and, ideally, a willingness to reevaluate and change with with the excitement of permanence and transformation while being aware of that one’s efforts might fall short of both.
#Irvine study; #mediaviolenece; #mediaexposure; #ScienceAdvances
New York, Apr 23 (Canadian-Media): Repeated exposure to media coverage of collective traumas, such as mass shootings or natural disasters, can fuel a cycle of distress, according to a University of California, Irvine study.
Researchers found that individuals can become more emotionally responsive to news reports of subsequent incidents, resulting in heightened anxiety and worry about future occurrences.
The report appears in Science Advances, a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, open-access journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
“It’s natural for people to experience feelings of concern and uncertainty when a terrorist attack or a devastating hurricane occurs,” said senior author Roxane Cohen Silver, UC Irvine professor of psychological science. “Media coverage of these events, fueled by the 24-hour news cycle and proliferation of mobile technologies, is often repetitious and can contain graphic images, video and sensationalized stories, extending the impact to populations beyond those directly involved.”
Earlier research has shown that consumption of media coverage of a collective trauma is a rational response for individuals seeking information as a way to mitigate their apprehension and cope with their stress. However, this strategy may backfire. According to this new study, repeated exposure to explicit content may exacerbate fear about future adversities, which promotes future media consumption and greater anxiety when they do occur. There is an even greater risk of falling into this pattern for those who have experienced violence in their lives or have been diagnosed with mental health ailments.
“The cycle of media exposure and distress appears to have downstream implications for public health as well,” said Rebecca R. Thompson, a UC Irvine postdoctoral scholar in psychological science and lead author of the report. “Repeated exposure to news coverage of collective traumas has been linked to poor mental health consequences — such as flashbacks — in the immediate aftermath and posttraumatic stress responses and physical health problems over time, even among individuals who did not directly experience the event.”
A national longitudinal study of more than 4,000 U.S. residents was conducted by Thompson, Silver and their colleagues over a three-year period following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and the 2016 massacre at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Florida. Participants were surveyed four times, enabling the team to capture responses to both tragedies and examine how responses to the first incident affected reactions to news coverage of the second.
“Our findings suggest that media organizations should seek to balance the sensationalistic aspects of their coverage, such as providing more informational accounts as opposed to lengthy descriptions of carnage, as they work to inform the public about breaking news events,” Silver said. “This may lessen the impact of exposure to one event, reducing the likelihood of increased worry and media-seeking behavior for subsequent events.”
Also conducting the study were Nickolas M. Jones, former UC Irvine psychological science doctoral student, and E. Alison Holman, UC Irvine associate professor of nursing. Project funding was provided by National Science foundation grants BCS-1342637, BCS-385 1451812 and BCS-1650792.
#MIT; #AI; #MITTechnologyReview; #KellgrenLawrenceGrade; #NIH
New York/Canadian-Media: A new study shows how training deep-learning models on patient outcomes could help reveal gaps in existing medical knowledge, Karen Hao, the senior AI reporter at MIT Technology Review reported.
Image: Measuring pain scale. Image credit: MIT Technology
In the last few years, research has shown that deep learning can match expert-level performance in medical imaging tasks like early cancer detection and eye disease diagnosis. But there’s also cause for caution. Other research has shown that deep learning has a tendency to perpetuate discrimination. With a health-care system already riddled with disparities, sloppy applications of deep learning could make that worse.
Now a new paper published in Nature Medicine is proposing a way to develop medical algorithms that might help reverse, rather than exacerbate, existing inequality. The key, says Ziad Obermeyer, an associate professor at UC Berkeley who oversaw the research, is to stop training algorithms to match human expert performance.
The paper looks at a specific clinical example of the disparities that exist in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, an ailment which causes chronic pain. Assessing the severity of that pain helps doctors prescribe the right treatment, including physical therapy, medication, or surgery. This is traditionally done by a radiologist reviewing an x-ray of the knee and scoring the patient’s pain on the Kellgren–Lawrence grade (KLG), which calculates pain levels based on the presence of different radiographic features, like the degree of missing cartilage or structural damage.
But data collected by the National Institute of Health found that doctors using this method systematically score Black patients’ pain as far as far less severe than what they say they’re experiencing. Patients self-report their pain levels using a survey that asks how much it hurts to do various things, such as fully straightening their knee. But these self-reported pain levels are ignored in favor of the radiologist’s KLG score when prescribing treatment. In other words, Black patients who show the same amount of missing cartilage as white patients self-report higher levels of pain.
This has consistently miffed medical experts. One hypothesis is that Black patients could be reporting higher levels of pain in order to get doctors to treat them more seriously. But there’s an alternative explanation. The KLG methodology itself could be biased. It was developed several decades ago with white British populations. Some medical experts argue that the list of radiographic markers it tells clinicians to look for may not include all the possible physical sources of pain within a more diverse population. Put another way, there may be radiographic indicators of pain that appear more commonly in Black people that simply aren’t part of the KLG rubric.
#ScienceAndTechnology; #AI; #PVersusNPQuestion; #ComputerScience;
New York/Canadian-Media: Computers are good at answering questions. What's the shortest route from my house to Area 51? Is 8,675,309 a prime number? How many teaspoons in a tablespoon? For questions like these, they've got you covered.
This collection of dots and lines is the shortest traveling salesperson problem tour that passes through 1,000 points. Image Credit: William Cook et al., CC BY-ND
There are certain innocent-sounding questions, though, that computer scientists believe computers will never be able to answer—at least not within our lifetimes. These problems are the subject of the P versus NP question, which asks whether problems whose solutions can be checked quickly can also be solved quickly. P versus NP is such a fundamental question that either designing a fast algorithm for one of these hard problems or proving you can't would net you a cool million dollars in prize money.
My favorite hard problem is the traveling salesperson problem. Given a collection of cities, it asks: What is the most efficient route that visits all of them and returns to the starting city? To come up with practical answers in the real world, computer scientists use approximation algorithms, methods that don't solve these problems exactly but get close enough to be helpful. Until now, the best of these algorithms, developed in 1976, guaranteed that its answers would be no worse than 50% off from the best answer.
I work on approximation algorithms as a computer scientist. My collaborators Anna Karlin and Shayan Oveis Gharan and I have found a way to beat that 50% mark, though just barely. We were able to prove that a specific approximation algorithm puts a crack in this long-standing barrier, a finding that opens the way for more substantial improvements.
This is important for more than just planning routes. Any of these hard problems can be encoded in the traveling salesperson problem, and vice versa: Solve one and you've solved them all. You might say that these hard problems are all the same computational gremlin wearing different hats.
The best route is hard to find
The problem is usually stated as "find the shortest route." However, the most efficient solution can be based on a variety of quantities in the real world, such as time and cost, as well as distance.
To get a sense of why this problem is difficult, imagine the following situation: Someone gives you a list of 100 cities and the cost of plane, train and bus tickets between each pair of them. Do you think you could figure out the cheapest itinerary that visits them all?
Consider the sheer number of possible routes. If you have 100 cities you want to visit, the number of possible orders in which to visit them is 100 factorial, meaning 100 × 99 × 98 x … ×
1. This is larger than the number of atoms in the universe.
Going with good enough
Unfortunately, the fact that these problems are difficult does not stop them from coming up in the real world. Besides finding routes for traveling salespeople (or, these days, delivery trucks), the traveling salesperson problem has applications in many areas, from mapping genomes to designing circuit boards.
To solve real-world instances of this problem, practitioners do what humans have always done: Get solutions that might not be optimal but are good enough. It's OK if a salesperson takes a route that's a few miles longer than it has to be. No one cares too much if a circuit board takes a fraction of a second longer to manufacture or an Uber takes a few minutes longer to carry its passengers home.
Computer scientists have embraced "good enough" and for the past 50 years or so have been working on so-called approximation algorithms. These are procedures that run quickly and produce solutions that might not be optimal but are probably close to the best possible solution.
The long-reigning champ of approximation
One of the first and most famous approximation algorithms is for the traveling salesperson problem and is known as the Christofides-Serdyukov algorithm. It was designed in the 1970s by Nicos Christofides and, independently, by a Soviet mathematician named Anatoliy Serdyukov whose work was not widely known until recently.
The Christofides-Serdyukov algorithm is quite simple, at least as algorithms go. You can think of a traveling salesperson problem as a network in which each city is a node and each path between pairs of cities is an edge. Each edge is assigned a cost, for example the traveling time between the two cities. The algorithm first selects the cheapest set of edges that connect all the cities.
This, it turns out, is easy to do: You just keep adding the cheapest edge that connects a new city. However, this not a solution. After connecting all the cities, some might have an odd number of edges coming out of them, which doesn't make sense: Every time you enter a city with an edge, there should be a complementary edge you use to leave it. So the algorithm then adds the cheapest collection of edges that makes every city have an even number of edges and then uses this to produce a tour of the cities.
This algorithm runs quickly and always produces a solution that's at most 50% longer than the optimal one. So, if it produces a tour of 150 miles, it means that the best tour is no shorter than 100 miles.
Of course, there's no way to know exactly how close to optimal an approximation algorithm gets for a particular example without actually knowing the optimal solution—and once you know the optimal solution there's no need for the approximation algorithm! But it's possible to prove something about the worst-case scenario. For example, the Christofides-Serdyukov algorithm guarantees that it produces a tour that is at most 1.5 times the length of the shortest collection of edges connecting all the cities—and, therefore, at most 1.5 times the length of the optimal tour.
A really small improvement that's a big deal
Since the discovery of this algorithm in 1976, computer scientists had been unable to improve upon it at all. However, last summer my collaborators and I proved that a particular algorithm will, on average, produce a tour that is less than 49.99999% away from the optimal solution. I'm too ashamed to write out the the true number of 9s (there are a lot), but this nevertheless breaks the longstanding barrier of 50%.
The algorithm we analyzed is very similar to Christofides-Serdyukov. The only difference is that in the first step it picks a random collection of edges that connects all the cities and, on average, looks like a traveling salesperson problem tour. We use this randomness to show that we don't always get stuck where the previous algorithm did.
While our progress is small, we hope that other researchers will be inspired to take another look at this problem and make further progress. Often in our field, thresholds like 50% stand for a long time, and after the first blow they fall more quickly. One of our big hopes is that the understanding we gained about the traveling salesperson problem while proving this result will help spur progress.
Getting closer to perfect
There is another reason to be optimistic that we will see more progress within the next few years: We think the algorithm we analyzed, which was devised in 2010, may be much better than we were able to prove. Unlike Christofides' algorithm, which can be shown to have a hard limit of 50%, we suspect this algorithm may be as good as 33%.
Indeed, experimental results that compare the approximation algorithm to known optimal solutions suggest that the algorithm is quite good in practice, often returning a tour within a few percent of optimal.
#Google; #Maps; #Photos; #Globe
New York/Canadian-Media: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about many changes, including business closures and updated hours for restaurants and stores.
CC0 Public Domain. Image credit: Unsplash
It has been ensured by Google has ensured that necessary changes to over 200 million places on their Maps application can be done any users with a Google account. Local Guides, a community of 150 million users around the globe who contribute to Maps updates are a newer development within Maps.
Maps experience has further been made easier for the users by Google's creation of a way for users to learn more about place options. This can be done by exploring an assortment of photos, reviews and updates about locations from all over the world.
For example, Android phone users can now use the Contribute tab in Maps to join the "Local Love Challenge" and write ratings and reviews as well as place location confirmations. The current goal stands at 100,000 recorded businesses. The Maps team plans to use the Local Love Challenge toward updating data on locations for countries covered in the future.
Another feature that would be added by the Maps team in the coming weeks is photo updates to share recent photos of visited places, which will facilitate users insight into not only a business's appearance and location but also the street view and various traffic conditions nearby.
For participation in photo updates, users can navigate to the Updates tab when viewing a place and select "upload a photo update". All users may upload as many photos as they wish as well as view any photos left by others in the Updates section.
In addition, routes within the Maps app can be revised by selecting the "Edit the map" feature and reporting a "Missing Road". Users of the can also add missing roads by drawing lines, change road directions, rename roads and delete or realign incorrectly named roads, inform the Maps team about road closures along with details such as dates and reasons.
In order to ensure the accuracy of user-provided data prior to publication, the team at Google will assess all updates made by the user.
While the updates feature is already available in over 80 countries, the new location photo features will become available over the coming months.